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School of Law

Professor Graham Dutfield


Visiting Professor


Graham Dutfield is Professor of International Governance at the School of Law, University of Leeds. Prior to joining University of Leeds, he was the Herchel Smith Senior Research Fellow at CCLS, Queen Mary. He has been teaching on the Global Intellectual Property Law module since 2003. From 2001-2 he served as Academic Director of the ICTSD-UNCTAD Capacity-building Project on Intellectual Property Rights and Development, based in Geneva.

He is Adjunct Professor, Centre for Studies of Intellectual Property Rights, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan, China, and Research Affiliate, Intellectual Property and Technology Program, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto.

Professor Dutfield presents his research around the world, and has given lectures at various prestigious institutions including University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Harvard University, Yale University, Boston University, Osgoode Hall Law School (Canada), NALSAR (India), and the World Bank. In July 2016 he gave an invited lecture at the Central Intellectual Property and International Trade Court of Thailand before the Chief Justice and over fifty judges.

Postgraduate Teaching

  • QLLM340 Global Intellectual Property: Fundamental Principles
  • QLLM341 Global Intellectual Property: Technology and Policy
  • QLLM494 Agriculture, Innovation and Intellectual Property (new module from January 2019).


His research on intellectual property crosses several disciplines, including law, history, politics, economics and anthropology. More general scholarly interests include the law, science and business of creativity and technical innovation from the enlightenment to the present, especially in the life sciences. Other research areas include intellectual property and access to knowledge, human rights, sustainable development, health, agriculture, genetics, biotechnology, traditional knowledge and folklore, bioprospecting, and indigenous peoples' rights.  For further information, please see profile on

Competitive grants: scholarship and technical assistance projects

  • Darwin Initiative, Department of Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. ‘Access and benefit sharing in policy and practice’, 2017-20. Total budget: £325,250 (Project partner). Lead applicant: University of Cape Town
  • ‘Personalised Medicine and the Law’, University of Leeds Strategic Development Fund, 2017. Budget: £2,578 (Grantholder & PI)
  • EC TradeCom Facility: ‘Identifying geographical indications for legal protection in Saint Lucia’, 2012. Appointed Expert Consultant
  • EC TradeCom Facility: ‘Technical Assistance to the Zambian Ministry of Commerce, Trade & Industry in Intellectual Property Rights’, 2009. Appointed Expert Consultant
  • EC TradeCom Facility: ‘Capacity building to enhance the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry in Ghana in line with the WTO TRIPS Agreement’, 2009. Appointed Expert Consultant
  • European Commission 6th Framework RTD Project: ‘Impacts of the IPR Rules on Sustainable Development’, 2005-6. Total budget: €430,000. He was Applicant, Grantholder & PI of Europe-wide consortium - partners from UK, Germany, Spain & Bulgaria
  • European Commission Directorate-General for Trade: ‘Disclosure of Origin in Patent Applications’, 2003-4. Budget: €50,000 (Grantholder & PI)
  • EC Directorate-General for Trade: ‘Organising a Conference Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the WTO TRIPS Agreement’, 2003-4. Budget: €10,790 (Grantholder & PI)
  • Economic & Social Research Council Research Seminars award: ‘Intellectual Property Rights, Economic Development & Social Welfare: What Does History Tell Us?’ 2003-4. Budget: £13,437 (Grantholder & PI)



  • Knowledge Management and Intellectual Property Concepts, Actors and Practices from the Past to the Present, ed. by Dutfield G and Arapostathis S (Edward Elgar Pub, 2013)
    Author URL []
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  • Intellectual property and human development: Current trends and future scenarios, ed. by Dutfield G and Wong T (Cambridge University Press, 2012)
    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511761027
    Review in nature biotechnology by Philip Grubb "A patently negative view of industry" -
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  • Dutfield GM, Intellectual Property Rights and the Life Science Industries: Past, Present and FutureSecond (World Scientific, 2009)
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  • Dutfield G, Suthersanen U, Global Intellectual Property Law (Edward Elgar, 2008)
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  • Innovation without patents: Harnessing the creative spirit in a diverse world, ed. by Dutfield G, Suthersanen U and Chow KB (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007)
    Review in the Journal Intellectual Property Law and Practice by philippe de Jong "A new world view" -
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  • Dutfield G, Intellectual Property, Biogenetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge(Earthscan, 2004)
  • Dutfield G, Intellectual Property Rights and the Life Science Industries: A Twentieth Century History (Ashgate, 2003)
  • Trading in knowledge: Development perspectives on TRIPS, trade and sustainability, ed. by Dutfield G, Bellmann C and Meléndez-Ortiz R (Routledge, 2003)
    DOI: 10.4324/9781849773447
    Review in World Trade Review 3.02 (July 2004) by Cynthia Cannady "North–South trade in intellectual property: can it be fair?" -
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Journal articles

  • Dutfield G, ‘TK unlimited: The emerging but incoherent international law of traditional knowledge protection. Journal of World Intellectual Property, 20 (2017), 144-159
  • Dutfield G, ‘Healthcare innovation and patent law's 'pharmaceutical privilege': Is there a pharmaceutical privilege? And if so, should we remove it?’, Health Economics, Policy and Law, 12.4 (2017), 453-470
    DOI: 10.1017/S1744133117000111, Repository URL:
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  • Dutfield G, ‘Who invented glivec? Does it matter anyway?’, Economic and Political Weekly, 48.32 (2013), 41-42
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  • Dutfield GM, ‘Collective Invention and Patent Law Individualism: Origins and Functions of the Inventor’s Right of Attribution’, The WIPO Journal, 5.1 (2013), 25-34
    Dutfield GM, ‘Transboundary Resources, Consent and Customary Law’, Law, Environment and Development Journal 2013, 259-263
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  • Dutfield GM, ‘Patent on Steroids: What Hormones Tell Us about the Evolution of Patent Law’, Intellectual Property Journal, 23.3 (2011), 249-266
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  • Dutfield GM, ‘Who invents life – blind watchmakers, intelligent designers or genetic engineers?’, Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice, 5.7 (2010), 531-540
  • Dutfield G, ‘Delivering drugs to the poor: will the TRIPS Amendment help?’, Am J Law Med, 34.2-3 (2008), 107-124
    Author URL []

Selected chapters

  • Dutfield G, ‘Farmers, innovation, and intellectual property: Current trends and their consequences for food security’, in The Commons, Plant Breeding & Agricultural Research: Challenges for Food Security, Agrobiodiversity and Law, ed. by Girard, F & Frison, C (Routledge, 2018)
  • Dutfield G, ‘Viagra’, in A History of Intellectual Property in 50 Objects, ed. by Op den Kamp, C and Hunter, D (Cambridge University Press, 2018)
  • Dutfield G, ‘If we have never been modern, they have never been traditional: Traditional knowledge, biodiversity, and the flawed ABS paradigm’, ed. by McManis, C and Ong, B (Routledge, 2018)
  • Dutfield G, ‘Should we protect turmeric lattes?’, in Protecting Traditional Knowledge: The WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, ed. by Robinson, D, Abdul-Latif, A and Roffe (Edward Elgar, 2017)
  • Dutfield G, ‘The Limits of Substantive Patent Law Harmonization’, in Patent Law in Global Perspective, ed. by Okediji RL and Bagley MA (Oxford University Press, 2014)
    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199334278.003.0005
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  • Dutfield G, ‘Geographical indications and agricultural community development: Is the European model appropriate for developing countries?’, in The Intellectual Property and Food Project: From Rewarding Innovation and Creation to Feeding the World, ed. by Lawson C and Sanderson J (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2013)
  • Dutfield G, ‘The genetic code is 3.6 billion years old: it’s time for a rewrite’: Questioning the metaphors and analogies of synthetic biology and life science patenting’, in New Frontiers in the Philosophy of Intellectual Property (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)


Graham Dutfield has been external examiner for 30 PhDs in law and in other disciplines including anthropology (UCL), geosciences (Sydney), and theology (Oxford). He has acted as principal supervisor for ten doctoral students who successfully completed. These are as follows, with their topics:

CCLS, Queen Mary students

  • Protection of biodiversity and traditional knowledge in Cameroon and South Africa (Tonye M Marcelin)
  • Historical intellectual property jurisprudence in China (Ken Shao)
  • The FAO plant genetic resources treaty (Muriel Lightbourne)
  • The politics of negotiating intellectual property and public health provisions in free trade agreements (Johanna von Braun)
  • Intellectual property and agricultural biotechnology partnerships in India and Kenya (Lois Muraguri)
  • History of patent law in India (Rajesh Sagar)

University of Leeds students

  • Regulation of traditional medicine in India, China and Malaysia (CS Goh).
  • Protection of traditional knowledge in Nigeria (N Ogbonna)
  • Traditional knowledge and notions of justice (T Mordi)
  • Regulating biobanks in Mexico (L Soto Gomez)

Public Engagement

He has advised governments including those of Brazil, Ghana, Namibia, Saint Lucia and Zambia, as well as the Portfolio Committee on Trade and Industry of the South African Parliament. He has been quoted in The Economist, Science, the Times of India, the Wall Street Journal, and the web editions of ABC News and CNN. He is a member of the Expert Working Group on Traditional Knowledge and Genetic Resources, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Canada. He is also a member of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature SSC/WCEL Joint Specialist Group on Access and Benefit-sharing and Related Matters.

He has been cited in the World Intellectual Property Report 2015 of the United Nations World Intellectual Property Organization; and in the Final Report of the United Nations Secretary General's High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines.

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