What makes a just act? What makes a just person? What makes a just law? What makes a just society? These questions are as old as humanity itself. Many more could be added: Is law just a bundle of institutions, rules and procedures? Is law just something that happens in legislatures, courtrooms or prisons? How should law balance individual and collective interests? Should all individuals be equal under law? Is there a ‘higher’ law, ‘above’ human law? Should any laws be disobeyed? If so, what is it? How can we know it? What relationships exist between law and politics, morals, religion or culture? Christianity and Islam, secularism and democracy, liberalism and collectivism—some of the most diverse traditions have posed those questions, and trace them back to ancient Greek thought. In this module, we consider some of the classical ideas about justice as developed by Aristotle, which have continued to shape law and society for over 2,000 years.