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Centre for Commercial Law Studies

The transition to decentralized energy: Challenges, opportunities and progress

Professor Rafael Leal-Arcas publishes his work on the transition to decentralized energy in a new article

15 June 2020

Professor Rafael Leal-Arcas, Jean Monnet Chair holder in EU International Economic Law at Queen Mary University of London, has just published another article that results from his WiseGRID project (grant agreement number 731205), funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program:


The European Union (EU) 2020 Energy Strategy calls for reducing the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the share of renewable energy, and achieving significant energy savings. All EU countries must also increase the share of renewable energy in their transport sectors. EU member states are at various stages of compliance. This article analyses the situations in Slovenia, Croatia, Austria, and Luxembourg. It analyses relevant governance structures in each country and identifies where regulation is conducive to the above goals and where it is acting as a barrier. Given that deregulation and decentralization are part of achieving the EU’s energy strategy, the article examines where each of the four countries stands on that front and what specific initiatives and projects are underway towards greater deregulation and decentralization. Such initiatives include rollouts of smart metering systems and of electric vehicles as well as launching demand response schemes. The article also addresses relevant data protection concerns.