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Centre for Commercial Law Studies

Professor Rafael Leal-Arcas just published new findings of his WiseGRID grant

The article looks at regulation, innovation, and technology for the 21st century energy goals

A windfarm in fields of green grass and rapeseed against a cloudy blue sky

Professor Rafael Leal-Arcas, Jean Monnet Chair holder in EU International Economic Law at Queen Mary University of London, has just published the following article that results from his WiseGRID project (grant agreement number 731205), funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.

R. Leal-Arcas, G. Fearnley, and C. Gluck, “Regulation, innovation, and technology for the 21st century energy goals,” Journal of Law and Cyber Warfare, Vol. 8, Issue 1, pp. 30-107, 2020

You can access the article via SSRN


Energy is a key concern for every country, as it is inextricably linked with economic growth and sustainable development. As the world transitions to 21st century approaches to energy, numerous challenges arise to the forefront. These challenges include the crucial need for clean and renewable energy and transitioning away from fossil fuels, energy efficiency, energy security, and affordable energy for all. Achieving these goals involves innovation, investment, smart policies, and technological advancement. This article examines how two countries—The Republic of Ireland and Estonia—are faring towards achieving the above objectives. Both countries have implemented relevant measures and policies, such as the deployment of smart meters and grids, demand response, and promoting electric vehicles. However, both still need to take steps to accelerate progress. Many of their schemes could serve as models for other countries seeking to effectively decarbonize.



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