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Blizard Institute - Barts and The London

Professor Steve Greenwald, BA, PhD


Professor of Cardiovascular Mechanics

Telephone: 020 3246 0178



Following a BA in Natural Science at Hertford College Oxford and a PhD in Medicine (Pathology) from Guy's Hospital Medical School, Steve Greenwald obtained a British Heart Foundation Junior Research Fellowship working on arterial elasticity in children. This was followed by a position as research assistant in the Pathology Department of The London Hospital Medical College. He has been on the academic staff of The Medical College since 1980 and obtained a personal chair in Cardiovascular Mechanics in 2001. Since 2002 he has been head of intercalated degrees and an Associate Director of The Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials at Queen Mary University of London. He was elected as the Vice President of the International Society of Pathophysiology in 2006 and holds visiting professorships in Thailand and China.


Vice President, International Society of Pathophysiology
Associate Director of the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, QMUL.
Head of Intercalated Degrees, Barts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry Overseas Visiting Professor, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.
Guest Professor (bioengineering) at Southern Medical University, Guanzhou, China.


The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse, but during the last decade, the importance of mechanical factors in their pathogenesis has become widely recognised. For instance, changing stiffness of the large arteries is a powerful prognostic indicator of mortality and morbidity for hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease. Our research activities are aimed at a better understanding of the relationship between arterial composition, structure and mechanical function and range from mathematical modelling of the shear waves resulting from disturbed blood flow, through investigation of impaired vascular function in patients with diabetes and thalassaemia, to understanding how fatigue failure of elastin in adult life contributes to hypertension associated with impaired growth in-utero. On the applied side, recent work has been concerned with the development of novel methods for the measurement of arterial function including the activity of matrix metallo proteases, investigating the haemodynamic properties of novel stent/grafts and the non-invasive and indeed non-contact measurement of arterial stiffness. These ideas are propagated to students undertaking the intercalated degree in experimental pathology for whom we provide all the teaching in the CV Pathophysiology module.


Module lead: cardiovascular pathophysiology, intercalated degree in experimental pathology.
Similar lectures as part of biomaterial course to Materials Science BSc students, SEMS, QMUL.
Special Study Components, various topics
PBL facilitation, Cardio-respiratory, HSPH etc.

Topics for PhD supervision:

Effect of age on arterial mechanical properties, wave propagation in soft tissue, assessment of vascular graft/stent mechanical properties.


Research Interests:

  • Mechanical factors in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension.
  • Investigation of structure/elasticity relationships in conduit arteries.
  • Development of non-invasive techniques for the measurement of arterial function.

Recent recent projects:

• EPSRC/MRC Discipline Bridging: Enzyme biosensors for the investigation of arterial ageing and degeneration. (With Dr. S. Krause SBCS, QMUL)
• EPSRC/MRC Discipline Bridging Design and Testing of a Photoplethysmographic Probe for Monitoring Large Arterial Compliance in Critical Care Patients.

Ongoing research projects:

• British Council, PMI2. Measurement of arterial elasticity and endothelial function in children with metabolic disease.
• NIHR, Invention for Innovation. Non-contact measurement of aortic compliance. (With Dr. S. Hu, Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University)
• NIHR, Invention for Innovation. Development of a Percutaneous Ascending Thoracic Aortic Graft (With Prof. M. Rothman, London Chest Hospital).
• EPSRC. Computational Diagnosis of Arterial Stenoses. (With DR. S. Shaw, Applied Mathematics, Brunel University)


Timmins LH, Wu Q, Yeh AT, Moore JE, Jr., Greenwald SE. Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 May 1, 2010;298(5):H1537-45.

Greenwald SE. Ageing of the conduit arteries. J Pathol. 2007 Jan;211(2):157-72.

Rachev A, Greenwald SE. Residual strains in conduit arteries. J Biomech. 2003;36(5):661-70.

Loukogeorgakis S, Dawson R, Phillips N, Martyn CN, Greenwald SE. Validation of a device to measure arterial pulse wave velocity by a photoplethysmographic method. Physiological Measurement. 2002;23(3):581-96.

View all Steve Greenwald's Research Publications at: