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The William Harvey Research Institute - Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry

Dr Krishnaraj Sinhji Rathod

Krishnaraj Sinhji

Clinical Senior Lecturer at WHRI, NIHR BRC at QMUL, Consultant in Interventional Cardiology (Barts Heart Centre)

Centre: Cardiovascular Medicine and Devices

Twitter: @krishnaraj82


ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4268-5055 

Krishnaraj Rathod completed medicine at Barts School of Medicine with two distinctions and an intercalated degree in Molecular Therapeutics (1st Class Hons). He is currently a senior Clinical Lecturer based with the NIHR BRC and WHRI and an interventional Cardiology Consultant at Barts Heart Centre. His PhD was funded by a highly prestigious NIHR Doctoral Research Fellowship based on the investigation of the effect of dietary nitrate in patients with stable angina under the supervision of Professors Amrita Ahluwalia and Anthony Mathur.

His primary research interests are based around translational interventional clinical trials, including a phase I & II clinical trials. He is currently completing an MSc in clinical trials. Other interests include the cost-effectiveness of therapies in cardiovascular disease, the treatment of reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction and observational studies of long outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention.


  1. British Cardiology Society Winner for “Best of the Best Interventional Cardiology Abstract” (1 of 3 candidates) June 2023 for “Investigating the effects of dietary nitrate on vascular function, platelet reactivity and restenosis in stable angina (NITRATE-OCT Study). Awarded by BCS 7th June 2023 £250
  2. British Cardiology Society Young Investigator Award Shortlist (1 of 5 candidates) June 2023 for “Investigating the effects of dietary nitrate on vascular function, platelet reactivity and restenosis in stable angina (NITRATE-OCT Study). Awarded by BCS 6th June 2023 £500.
  3. HSJ Award, Acute Sector Innovation of the Year 2022: Barts Heart Centre and Glenfield Hospital, Early Discharge After AMI Pathway. 17th November 2022.
  4. BMJ Awards 2021: Stroke and cardiovascular team of the year. AMI early discharge pathway. National Team Award by BMJ 2021, UK
  5. GICS 2021 (Gwangju International Interventional Cardiology Symposium) Korean International Meeting 2021 $500. Oral Presentation Outstanding Achievement and Runner-up. Safety and feasibility of a 24-hour discharge pathway for low-risk patients following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Awarded by GICS 2021, Korea, UK
  6. Cardiovascular Research Therapeutics Virtual 2021 Meeting "Young Leadership Programme" 2021 to attend, become faculty and panelist at the Virtual CRT Meeting February March 2021. Awarded by CRT, Washington, USA.
  7. C3 (Complex Cardiovascular Catheter Therapeutics. Advanced Endovascular and Coronary Intervention Global Summit. International Prize for the best presentation by an Interventional Trainee/Fellow. Held in Orlando, Florida (USA) 23rd – 26th June 2019. Awarded to Top Abstract/Oral Presentation, Orlando, Florida, USA.
  8. British Pharmacology Society (BPS) Vogt Prize for Excellence in Post-Graduate Education (PhD Award). National Prize £500.  Awarded to top Pharamacology/Therapeutics PhD Student in the Country. Awarded by the BPS, UK.
  9. BCIS National Scholarship to attend C3 (Complex Cardiovascular Catheter Therapeutics. Advanced Endovascular and Coronary Intervention Global Summit. Held in Orlando, Florida (USA) 23rd – 26th June 2019. Awarded to 10 Interventional Trainees in the UK by BCIS, UK.
  10. Acute Cardiovascular Care Conference (European Society of Cardiology): 2019 Nominated/Runner-up for Research Prize: 2019, for, “Inter-Hospital Transfer for Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention has worse outcome compared with direct admission to a heart attack centre: an observational study of 25,315 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction from the London Heart Attack Group”. Awarded by ESC 2019, Malaga, Spain.
  11. EuroPCR has got Talent 2018: Runner-up, Second place. for, “Complete revascularisation versus culprit only lesion intervention in ACS patients with multi-vessel disease: Incidence and outcomes from The London Heart Attack Group.”.Awarded by EuroPCR, 2018, France.
  12. European Atherosclerosis Society 2018: Young Investigator Fellowship 2018, for attending EAS and presenting at EAS 2018, “Culprit Lesion Versus Multi-Vessel Intervention In Patients With Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Myocardial Infarction: Incidence And Outcomes From the London Heart Attack Group. “Awarded by EAS 2018, Lisbon.
  13. Acute Cardiovascular Care Conference (European Society of Cardiology): 2018 Nominated/Runner-up for Young Investigator Award: 2018, for, “Complete revascularisation versus culprit only lesion intervention in ACS patients with multi-vessel disease: Incidence and outcomes from The London Heart Attack Group.”. Awarded by ESC 2018, Milan.
  14. Experimental Biology 2016 (ASPET Meeting): Frist Prize at the Poster Competition. Investigation of the influence of sex on inflammation on healthy volunteers. 2nd – 6th April 2016. San Diego, USA
  15. Gordon Research Conference (Nitric Oxide) 2015: Young Investigator Award (Travelling Fellow Prize) $600, at The Gordon Research Conference on Nitric Oxide in February 2015 to present the abstract “Xanthine oxidoreductase in atherosclerotic mice: determination of expression and nitrite reductase activity”.  Awarded by GRC 2015, USA.
  16. British Pharmacological Society: Bain Travel Award 2015 £450, Travel grant to attend the Gordon Research Conference on Nitric Oxide in February 2015 to present the abstract “Xanthine oxidoreductase in atherosclerotic mice: determination of expression and nitrite reductase activity”.  Awarded by BPS 2015, UK.
  17. Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics: Top 25 Poster 2010 for, "Direct transfer to a cardiac centre results in lower MACE rates compared to inter-hospital transfers for primary PCI". Awarded by TCT 2010, USA.
  18. Isaac Schapera Trust for Medical Research £1,165, Awarded by North East Thames Foundation School, London. 2009
  19. Welcome Trust Vacation Scholarship £1440, Awarded by Welcome Trust, London. 2006
  20. BPS Clinical Pharmacology National Finalist at BPS Winter Meeting 2006, British Pharmacological Society, Oxford. 2006
  21. BPS Clinical Pharmacology Student Project Prize £500, Awarded by British Pharmacological Society, London. 2006
  22. ASH Travel Award $500, Awarded by American Society of Hematology, USA. 2006
  23. Research Advisory Board Bursary for B.Med.Sci Degree £2,750, Awarded by Bart’s and the London NHS Trust, London. 2005


  1. European Association of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (EAPCI)
  2. Royal College Of Physicians (RCP)
  3. British Cardiac Society (BCS)
  4. British Junior Cardiologists' Association (BJCA)
  5. British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS)
  6. British Cardiovascular Research Society 2017
  7. Acute Cardiovascular Care (ACVC) Silver Member
  8. European Society of Cardiology Thrombosis Member
  9. EAPCI Young
  10. British Pharmacological Society
  11. Fellow of the Higher Education Academy


Group members

Vascular Pharmacology Group
Professor Amrita Ahluwalia (Head), Jonathan Ho (Lab Manager), Vikas Kapil (Clinical Senior Lecturer/Consultant), Dan Jones (Clinical Senior Lecturer and Consultant Cardiologist), Rayomand Khambata (Lecturer), Dr Claudio Raimondi (Lecturer), and Dr Vahitha Abdul Salaam (Lecturer).

Barts Interventional Cardiology Research Department
Professor Anthony Mathur, Professor Andreas Baumbach, Mervyn Andiapen, and Ruth Bowles


Krishnaraj has over 15 years experience in registry based research looking at outcomes in cardiovascular disease rsulting in over 50 peer-reviewed papers.  Krishnaraj has undertaken substantial observational studies in clinical cardiology from local BCIS and MINAP Database collection, as well as analysis of BCIS and MINAP data from eight different PCI centres across London (Pan-London Database). This involves collaborating with consultants and research department from all eight centres and collecting as well as combining the data before analysis. The data consists of over 125,000 patients over a 10-year period. From this database, Krishnaraj has designed and carried out complex statistical analysis (including multivariate analysis, cox regression and propensity scoring). Krishnaraj has presented over 50 posters/oral presentations at both national and international level, including Cardiovascular Research Therapeutics 2019, The American Heart Association 2009, European Cardiology Society 2009, 2010, 2011, EuroPCR 2010, 2011, 2018 and Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2017, Acute Cardiovascular Care Association 2018 and 2019. British Cardiovascular Society 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, British Pharmacology Society 2008 and 2014, Gordon Research Conference (Nitric Oxide) 2015, Experimental Biology 2016, American Society of Haematology 2006, Diabetes UK 2005. Krishnaraj has published over 110 peer reviewed journal articles, over 200 abstracts and has been awarded 100 so far.

Biomedical Science Research

Krishnaraj’s PhD was funded through a very competitive NIHR Doctoral Research Fellowship which was awarded in June 2014. This was the largest amount (£550,000) awarded fellowship for a PhD student at that time and the award was for funding a phase II clinical trial (NITRATE-OCT) involving 300 patients, investigating the use of dietary nitrate (in the form of beetroot juice) in patients with stable angina, particularly looking at its effects on restenosis and platelet reactivity. Krishnaraj was the lead Sub-investigator and trial co-ordinator for this trial. This trial was presented as a LBCT at CRT in 2023 ( and has won multiple awards including a being shortlisted as a Young Investigator Award at the Royal Society of Medicine 2023 and winning a National Award at the British Cardiology Society 2023.

Krishnaraj has also completed a number of Phase I/II, healthy volunteer studies including “Investigating the influence of sex on cardiovascular function and inflammation.” This study involved two distinct parts. The first part involved assessment of the differences in vascular function and inflammation between men and women by inducing systemic inflammation using typhoid vaccine. The second part of the study involved inducing a local inflammatory response, using cantharidin, to induce a blister on the forearm of healthy men and women. From this study, Krishnaraj is become proficient in many bench-based techniques that provide him with a very rounded portfolio of research technique expertise. These techniques include: Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, flow mediated dilation using ultrasound, the latter the gold standard for vascular function assessment. 

Krishnaraj has also developed the protocol and completed two larger studies that are investigating the influence of dietary nitrate on these two models of inflammation between the sexes. These studies are near completion and are due to be published soon. Krishnaraj has a strong focus on translating discovery science research into clinical trials. 

Clinical Trials Experience

In addition to the NITRATE-OCT study, Krishnaraj is both principal investigator and sub-investigator on a number of multi-centre randomised clinical trials and registries. He works closely with Professor Anthony Mathur, Professor Amrita Ahluwalia and Professor Andreas Baumbach with areas of interest including:

  • Role of nitrite and nitrate on the cardiovascular system in both health and disease
  • Investigating sex differences in cardiovascular function and susceptibility to cardiovascular disease (RESOLVE-SEX, RESOLVE-CAD, Sex-CAD Registry)
  • Investigating the role of the microbiome in coronary artery disease
  • Risk-stratification in MI with normal coronary arteries (MINOCA Registry)
  • Patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NIHR Associate PI on iCorMicA)
  • Use of regenerative medicine in the treatment of refractory angina/cardiac failure
  • Cardiogenic Shock following acute coronary syndrome (CCCTN Database)
  • Device therapy: 
            o    Renal Denervation (Sub-I on RADIANCE Studies)
            o    NIHR Associate PI on CHIP-BCIS 3 (RCT involving IMPELLA)

Krishnaraj has supervises BMedSci students with all of the students receiving a First Class (Honours) in their degree and receiving national awards at the British Pharmacology Society. Krishnaraj also supervises clinical PhD students with Professor Ahluwalia and Professor Mathur and has been awarded grants from a number of funding applications (including NIHR, Barts Charity and Wellcome Trust). 

The clinical fellows are investigating differences between the sexes in patients suffering from ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and understanding the mechanisms behind nitrate reduction and the oral microbiome. Techniques used to determine this include: flow mediated dilatation, cantharidin model of inflammation, microbiome and cytokine analysis and flow cytometry. 

In addition, Krishnaraj is also undertaking a distance learning MSc in Clinical Trials .


Key Publications

For a full list of publications click here

  1. Early Hospital Discharge Following PCI for Patients With STEMI. Rathod KS, Comer K, Casey-Gillman O, Moore L, Mills G, Ferguson G, Antoniou S, Patel R, Fhadil S, Damani T, Wright P, Ozkor M, Das D, Guttmann OP, Baumbach A, Archbold RA, Wragg A, Jain AK, Choudry FA, Mathur A, Jones DA. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Dec 21;78(25):2550-2560. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.09.1379.PMID: 34915986
  2. The influence of biological age and sex on long-term outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Rathod KS, Jones DA, Jain AK, Lim P, MacCarthy PA, Rakhit R, Lockie T, Kalra S, Dalby MC, Malik IS, Whitbread M, Firoozi S, Bogle R, Redwood S, Cooper J, Gupta A, Lansky A, Wragg A, Mathur A, Ahluwalia A.Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2021 Oct 25;11(5):659-678. eCollection 2021.PMID: 34849299
  3. High Thrombus Burden in Patients With COVID-19 Presenting With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Choudry FA, Hamshere SM, Rathod KS, Akhtar MM, Archbold RA, Guttmann OP, Woldman S, Jain AK, Knight CJ, Baumbach A, Mathur A, Jones DA. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Sep 8;76(10):1168-1176. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.07.022. Epub 2020 Jul 14.PMID: 32679155
  4. Complete Versus Culprit-Only Lesion Intervention in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes. Rathod KS, Koganti S, Jain AK, Astroulakis Z, Lim P, Rakhit R, Kalra SS, Dalby MC, O'Mahony C, Malik IS, Knight CJ, Mathur A, Redwood S, Sirker A, MacCarthy PA, Smith EJ, Wragg A, Jones DA. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Oct 23;72(17):1989-1999. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.07.089.PMID: 30336821
  5. Khambata, Rayomand S., Ghosh, Suborno M., Rathod, Krishnaraj S., Thevathasan, Tharssana, Filomena, Federica, Xiao, Qingzhong, Ahluwalia, Amrita. Antiinflammatory actions of inorganic nitrate stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque. PNAS, 2017, 114, E550-E559
  6. Krishnaraj S. Rathod, Vikas Kapil, Shanti Velmurugan, Rayomand S. Khambata, Umme Siddique, Saima Khan, Sven Van Eijl, Lorna C Gee, Jaspal Bansal, Kavi Pitrola, Christopher Shaw, Fulvio D’Acquisto, Romain A. Colas, Federica Marelli-Berg, Jesmond Dalli, Amrita Ahluwalia. Accelerated resolution underlies sex differences in the inflammatory response in humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2017 Jan 3;127(1):169-182.
  7. Jones DA, Rathod KS, Gallagher S, Jain AK, Kalra SS, Lim P, Crake T, Ozkor M, Rakhit R, Knight CJ, Iqbal MB, Dalby MC, Malik IS, Whitbread M, Mathur A1, Redwood S, MacCarthy PA, Weerackody R, Wragg A. Manual Thrombus aspiration is not associated with reduced mortality in Patients Treated with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Study of 10,929 patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction from the London Heart Attack Group. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2015 Apr 20;8(4):575-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2014.11.021.
  8. Jones DA, Pellaton C, Velmurugan S, Rathod KS, Andiapen M, Antoniou S, van Eijl S, Webb AJ, Westwood MJ, Parmar MK, Mathur A, Ahluwalia A. 2015. Randomized phase 2 trial of intracoronary nitrite during acute myocardial infarction. Circ Res 2015; 116: 437-447.
  9. Jones DA, Gallagher S, Rathod K, Jain AK, Mathur A, Uppal R, Westwood M, Wong K, Rothman MT, Shipolini A, Smith EJ, Mills PG, Timmis AD, Knight CJ, Archbold RA, Wragg A. Clinical outcomes after myocardial revascularization according to operator training status: cohort study of 22 697 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Eur Heart J. 2013 2013;34(37):2887-95




  • Professor Hector Garcia Garcia
  • Professor Divaka Perera
  • Professor Colin Berry


Dr Rathod has a dedicated track record when it comes to teaching and training within the university and Barts Heart Cetnre. He regularly teaches medical students on the MBBS course throughout the year groups, is an examiner for the OSCEs. He also supervises BioMedical Science Students, SSC1-5 and has been supervising medical students for research projects over the summer period which he was a BMedSci student himself (>8 students in total) now. 

Higher Degree Supervision: Dr. Rathod is currently supervising 4 PhD students and 1 MD student, including a HARP (Welcome Trust) Fellow. 

Dr. Rathod is also a Co-Director of the Cardiology Boot Camp for Physician Associates and Allied Health Professionals through QMUL and the CVDHub


No disclosures.

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