Atlas of tooth development and eruption
We have developed a comprehensive evidence based atlas to estimate age using both tooth development and alveolar eruption for individuals between 28 weeks in utero to 23 years; it shows a sequence of diagrams representing a continuum of developmental ages without gaps or overlaps 1.
Data was collected from developing teeth from 72 pre-natal and 104 post-natal skeletal remains of known age-at-death were examined from collections held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and the Natural History Museum, London UK (M 91, F 72, unknown sex 13) 2,3. Data was also collected from archived dental radiographs of living individuals (M 264, F 264) 4.
Median stage for tooth development and eruption for all age categories was used to construct the atlas. Tooth development was determined according to Moorrees, Fanning and Hunt 5,6 and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level 7,8. Intra-examiner reproducibility was 0.85 calculated using Kappa on 755 teeth (65 individuals).
Diagrams were drawn to represent monthly dental development in the last trimester, 2 weeks around a full gestation (40 weeks birth), quarterly development for the first year of life, and yearly development thereafter.
This atlas can be downloaded and used for teaching purposes or individual learning.
Article: Tables from AlQahtani, Hector and Liversidge 2010 [PDF 1,108KB] published by the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2010)
Electronic interactive software is now available to use for free.
- AlQahtani S J (2008). Atlas of tooth development and eruption. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry. London, Queen Mary University of London. MClinDent.
- Stack M V (1960). Forensic Estimation of Age in Infancy by Gravimetric Observations on the Developing Dentition. Journal of the Forensic Science Society 1(1):49-59.
- Liversidge H M, Molleson T I (1999). Developing permanent tooth length as an estimate of age. Journal of Forensic Sciences 44:917-920.
- AlQahtani S J, Liversidge H M, Hector M P (2010). Atlas of tooth development and eruption. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142(3):481-90.
- Moorrees C F A, Fanning E A, Hunt E E (1963a). Age Variation of Formation Stages for Ten Permanent Teeth. Journal of Dental Research 42:1490-502.
- Moorrees C F A, Fanning E A, Hunt E E (1963b). Formation and Resorption of Three Decideous Teeth in Children. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 21:205-13.
- Bengston R G (1935). A study of the time of eruption and root development of the permanent teeth between six and thirteen years. Northwest University Bulletin 35:3-9.
- Liversidge H M, Molleson T I (2004). Variation in crown and root formation and eruption of human deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 123(2):172-80.