Molecular and Genomic Medicine MSc

Double Degree Molecular and Genomic Medicine: this programme is offered as a 2 year full time course (delivered both as distance learning and on campus); the programme is also offered as a 4 year part time (distance learning/on campus). The area of molecular medicine and genomics research has transformed our understanding of disease biology and opened new avenues in drug discovery and patient treatment. See also Double Degree Option - IMU and QMUL (Genomic Medicine)

Make an enquiry

  • Advances in technology and informatics are fuelling an exponential growth in genomics but at the same time have created an urgent need to train healthcare professionals and the broader biomedical sector in to this discipline.
  • Genomics has strong potential to impact patient care but will require highly trained professionals to implement it both at the level of the pharmaceutical industry and the health care system.
  • This programme is modular in nature and will cover a wide range of disciplines associated with the subject from molecular basis of the diseases, immunology, infection through pharmacogenomics, the omics revolution, and the design of clinical trials.
  • Modules are delivered over the period of 21h (aprox.) and students are expected to supplement the provided content with self-directed learning.
  • Students will carry out a research project under joint supervision as part of the joint dissertation module. Students will have the option to carry out their project at either QMUL or IMU. The former will require obtaining a visa.
  • The language of instruction will be English throughout the programme.

Study options

Starting in
September 2020
Location
IMU (Malaysia) and Distance Learning
Fees
UK/EU: £9,950
International: £9,950
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.
Starting in
March 2020
Location
IMU (Malaysia) and Distance Learning
Fees
UK/EU: TBC
International: TBC
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.
Starting in
March 2020
Location
IMU (Malaysia) and Distance Learning
Fees
UK/EU: TBC
International: TBC
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.
Starting in
September 2020
Location
IMU (Malaysia) and Distance Learning
Fees
UK/EU: TBC
International: TBC
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.

What you'll study

Students are expected to achieve a solid theoretical foundation in the area of basic genetics and genomics in order to be able to critique: the study of disease genetics as well as how genomic information can be used to understand disease mechanisms and biology; A comprehensive analysis of the molecular and genetic approaches to the diagnosis of various diseases as well as tracking and managing conditions; the analysis of the regulatory, legal and ethical issues in genomic research and associated clinical applications. In depth appraisal of the complexity of pharmacogenomics and other treatment options on individuals based on their genetic makeup, i.e. techniques to stratify patients at risk of adverse drug reactions as well as tailoring drug treatment to improve patient response.

This Double Award programme is offered via blended Distance learning and on-campus delivery. Students will have the choice to undertake their joint Dissertation research project either at QMUL or IMU under remote joint supervision. Students will receive comprehensive study materials via virtual learning environment (e.g. QMPLUS): - lecture capture material, seminar forums, message boards which requires student interaction to discuss and exchange ideas, share knowledge as well as reviewing lecture sessions. The taught component of the course will provide clear and concise insights into key areas of molecular and genomic medicine. Students will receive more comprehensive study materials via virtual learning environment (QMPLUS) including lecture capture materials, seminar forums and message boards which requires student interaction to discuss and exchange ideas, share knowledge as well as reviewing lecture sessions. One of the major strengths of this programme lies in the fact that the teaching staff will consist of top professionals working in the fields of molecular medicine and genomics. The exceptional expert “panel” of internal as well as external lecturers will be actively engaged with the course at all times. The WHRI also provides a unique environment of international calibre research in cardiovascular genomics whereas acting as a host to Genomics England offers the possibility to engage experts in high throughput clinical genomics and access to data sets for training purposes.

Structure

IMU modules are assessed through a variety of means including: Molecular Medicine - (MM301)- Three case reports (90%) + Presentation (10%) Molecular Basis of Diseases I - (MM307)- 2 Case studies Molecular Basis of Diseases II - (MM308)- 2 Case studies Immunology and Infection - (MM302)- Three case studies (60%) + Seminar (40%) Research Methodology (MM304) - Proposal writing (70%) + Journal style writing (30% ) For all taught modules of the Genomic Medicine but WHRM992 & WHRM935, there will be an end of module assessment in the form of a written essay / practical and an end of the course exam that will take place at IMU premises. For WHRM992 & WHRM935 there is only an end of module assessment in the form of a written essay / practical. For full Time students, the final examination for QMUL modules is undertaken only after all taught modules have been completed. For part-time students the examination is split over years 2 and 4. Award of the double MSc will require the completion of a joint research project dissertation (60 credits) which will be assessed via a written thesis of ~20,000 words and an oral presentation of the project and its findings. For the latter, students will give a 20 minute presentation, followed by 20 minute Q & A. 

This Double Award programme comprises of modules from the two courses: MSc Molecular Medicine (IMU) and MSc Genomic Medicine (QMUL). Double Award Programme is offered as a Full Time (2 year distance learning / on campus) and Part-Time (4 year distance learning / on campus). A. Full -Time programme: (i) Taught modules Students who are enrolled on the MSc Molecular Medicine at IMU and need to complete ALL the taught core modules plus 2 elective modules out of the three elective modules offered by the IMU programme (Laboratory Management, Stem Cell Technology and Therapeutics, Drug Discovery, Design and Development). Students will undertake one QMUL module alongside their IMU study. Students will then undertake the MSc Genomic Medicine programme via DL and undertake the following modules required for completion of the Double Award Degree: - 2 x 15 credit core modules (WHR7202 & WHR7206) - 4 x 15 credit modules - WHR7204, WHR7205, WHR7207, WHR7211 - 2 x 15 credit module from a list of three electives (WHR7209, WHRM992, & WHRM935) (ii) Dissertation - a 60 credit joint research project in the field of genomic medicine. 

The course structure and modules are for 2020-21 entry.

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Compulsory/Core modules

Omics Techniques and their Application to Genomic Medicine

Module will deliver a comprehensive coverage of the techniques used to obtain the DNA sequence of targeted parts of the genome (e.g. exome sequencing) or whole genomes using state-of -the-art highly parallel sequencing platforms. Furthermore, it will provide clear understanding of the use of array based methodologies and RNA sequencing in estimating expression levels of protein coding genes, micro RNAs and long non-coding RNAs; gene expression is a key intermediate phenotype in genetic / genomic analyses of disease. Finally, the module will offer an introduction to the evolving fields of metabolomics and proteomics covering some of the most established techniques currently used in biomedical research.

Molecular Pathology of Cancer and Application in Cancer Diagnosis

The module will provide an introduction to the principles of molecular pathology. It will cover basic cancer biology and the role of the tumour microenvironment and how this may be exploited for therapeutic gain. It includes the molecular classification of solid tumors - breast, melanoma and soft tissue tumours- and haematological malignancies, with an emphasis on how this may be applied for disease stratification, prediction and prognosis. Students will learn about the analytical challenges in cancer genomics and in particular issues related to the purity of tumour material as well as the quality (many stored samples are paraffin embedded) and availability of samples which is often a limiting factor. It will introduce the student to the challenges raised by genomic analysis of tumours, and how these may be overcome, and finally the application of cutting-edge technologies for the application of molecular diagnostics in the clinical setting.

Pharmacogenomics and Stratified Healthcare

This particular module will focus on understanding the complexity of pharmacogenomics and effect of medication on individuals based on their genetic makeup i.e. techniques to stratify patients at risk of adverse drug reactions as well as tailoring drug treatment to improve patient response. The course will use examples of known pharmacogenetic tests (e.g. tamoxifen in breast cancer, warfarin in anticoagulation, abacavir in HIV). Furthermore, it will cover the different type of biomarkers currently in use or emerging (e.g. epigenetic markers)

Bioinformatics, Interpretation, and Data Quality Assurance in Genome Analysis

Students will learn to handle sequence files from exome and / or whole genome sequencing (e.g. BAM files), apply quality control filters to remove outliers, call variants, annotate variants for functional consequences (e.g. PolyPhene 2 is an algorithm for predicting the impact of amino acid changes on protein stability and function) and finally apply different filtering strategies using publicly available control data sets (e.g. 1000 Genomes Project) to identify pathogenic mutations. The module will cover a wide range of statistical and bioinformatics techniques and tools such as: - R package - PLINK - GATK The module will also cover the use of databases and literature searches to critically assess and annotate findings of genetic and genomic analyses. Theoretical sessions will be coupled with practical assignments of analysing and annotating predefined data sets.

Application of Genomics in Infectious Disease

The module will provide an introduction to the principles of microbial genome structure. It will cover microbial genome sequencing in support of diagnosis and guiding patient care as well as the impact of microbial diversity on understanding and preventing infectious diseases. The module will discuss the use of medical and biological and genetic information in tracking and managing infections and importantly antimicrobial resistance. The genomics of host-pathogen interactions will be discussed. The module will then cover the approaches for characterizing novel and emerging pathogens. Metagenomics as tools for deciphering complex microbial communities and how these influence the exchange of virulence mechanisms and microbial resistance genes within the host. Analysis of quasi-species through deep sequencing to demonstrate the impact of within host diversity on drug resistance and therapeutics particulalry for viral infections will be explained. Students will learn about the challenges that research is facing in determining host-parasite interactions and patient susceptibility.

Dissertation (60 credits - with IMU)

Students will use both the theoretical knowledge they acquired throughout the taught part of both programmes and the analytical skills they developed in order to tackle a research question relevant to Genomic Medicine by themselves. Undertaking a research project will involve formulating the question, acquiring and analysing the data and finally presenting and discussing results. Students will have joint supervision with the first supervisor being from the Institution at which the dissertation project will be taking place. Students will submit a thesis (~20,000 words).

Elective modules

Assessment

The dissertation project can be carried out at either QMUL or IMU and in either case will be under joint supervision. Students who wish to complete the dissertation module at QMUL shall require a valid student visa. B. Part-time version of the programme: Students are expected to complete: Year 1: (3 x IMU modules + 1 QMUL module): - Molecular Medicine - Molecular Basis of Diseases 1 - Immunology and Infection - Omics’ techniques and their application to genomic medicine Year 2: (2 x IMU modules + 2 x QMUL modules): - Molecular Basis of Diseases 2 - Research Methodology - Bioinformatics, Interpretation, and Data Quality Assurance in Genome Analysis - Ethical, legal and social issues in genomic medicine Year 3: (2 x IMU (elective) modules + 3 x QMUL modules) Year 4: (2 MGM modules + Dissertation) 

Teaching

Where you'll learn

Facilities

About the Institute

William Harvey Research Institute

The William Harvey Research Institute (WHRI) places a high value upon training the next generation of researchers. We are part of Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry – one of the top 10 multi-faculty research institutions in the UK (REF 2014).

Our primary research focus and excellence lies in our cardiovascular, inflammation and endocrine research themes. In addition, we achieve international excellence in critical care and perioperative medicine research. We aim to combine talents from different disciplines such as genomics, cell biology, and pharmacology, with translational bench-to-patient studies and large-scale clinical trials.

We are currently the largest pharmacological research institute in the UK University sector, and one of the largest in Europe. The Centre employs 530 clinicians and scientists from 45 countries.

Career paths

Fees and Funding

Full-time study

September 2020 | 2 years

  • Home and EU: £9,950
  • International: £9,950
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.

Full-time study

March 2020 | 2 years

  • Home and EU: TBC
  • International: TBC
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.

Part-time study

March 2020 | 4 years

  • Home and EU: TBC
  • International: TBC
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.

Part-time study

September 2020 | 4 years

  • Home and EU: TBC
  • International: TBC
Note that fees may be subject to an increase on an annual basis - see details on our tuition fees page.

Queen Mary alumni get a £1,000 discount on their fees. Find out more about the Alumni Loyalty Award

Funding

There are a number of ways you can fund your postgraduate degree.

Our Advice and Counselling service offers specialist support on financial issues, which you can access as soon as you apply for a place at Queen Mary. Before you apply, you can access our funding guides and advice on managing your money:

Entry Requirements

UK

Degree requirements

Find out more about how to apply for our postgraduate taught courses.

International

Afghanistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Albania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Algeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome de [subject area]; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; Diplome de Docteur end Pharmacie; or Diplome de Docteur en Medecine from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Angola
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13 out of 20

Argentina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo/ Grado de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Armenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 87 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 61 out of 100

Australia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: High Distinction; or First Class with Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Distinction; or Upper Second Class with Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Credit; or Lower Second Class with Honours

Austria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Azerbaijan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.5 out of 5

Bahamas
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bahrain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 90 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 80 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 out of 4.0; or 74 out of 100

Bangladesh
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.2 to 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.3 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 to 2.7 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Barbados
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from the University of West Indies, Cave Hill or Barbados Community College.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours*; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0**
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours*; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0**
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours*; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0**

*relates to: the University of West Indies, Cave Hill.

**relates to: Barbados Community College.

Belarus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 10; or 3.5 out of 5

Belgium
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or 16/20*; or 78%**
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or 14/20*; or 72%**
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or 12/20*; or 65%**

*Flanders (Dutch-speaking)/ Wallonia (French-speaking)
**German-speaking

Belize
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Benin
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maitrise or Masters from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Bolivia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario or Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%* or 80%**
UK 2:1 degree: 75%* or 70%**
UK 2:2 degree: 65%* or 60%**

*relates to: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario

**relates to: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] 

Bosnia and Herzegovina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Botswana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 5 years) or Master Degree from the University of Botswana.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Brazil
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Título de Bacharel / Título de [subject area] or Título de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

The above grades assumes that the grading scale has a pass mark of 5.

Brunei
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bulgaria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.0 out of 6.0

Burundi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 12 out of 20

Cambodia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.35 out of 4.0

Cameroon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures de Commerce; Diplome d'Ingenieur de Conception/ Travaux; Doctorat en Medecine/ Pharmacie; or Maitrise or Master 1 from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Canada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Chile
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado de Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 6.5 out of 7
UK 2:1 degree: 5.5 out of 7
UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 7

China
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 95%
UK 2:1 degree: 75 to 85%
UK 2:2 degree: 70 to 80%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  Generally, we do not accept applications from students studying at Affiliate Colleges.

Colombia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.60 out of 5.00
UK 2:1 degree: 4.00 out of 5.00
UK 2:2 degree: 3.50 out of 5.00

Congo, Dem. Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies or Diplome d'Etudes Speciales from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or 70%

Congo, Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Superieures or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Costa Rica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachiller or Licenciado from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Croatia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education Level VII/1 (Diploma - Visoko obrazovanje) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3 out of 5

Cuba
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Arquitecto/ Doctor/ Ingeniero from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Czech Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.2 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 1.5 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 4 is the lowest.

Denmark
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 12 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 11 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 8 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:2 degree: 4 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 7 out of 13 (before 2007)

Dominican Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 95/100
UK 2:1 degree: 85/100
UK 2:2 degree: 78/100

Ecuador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 9/10; or 19/20; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 8/10; or 18/20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 7/10; or 14/20; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Egypt
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or GPA 2.5 out of 4

El Salvador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 5 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Eritrea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Estonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; University Specialist's Diploma; or Professional Higher Education Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2 out of 5

The above grades assumes that 1 is the pass mark. 

Eswatini
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Ethiopia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Fiji
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from one of the following institutions: Fiji National University, the University of Fiji, or the University of South Pacific, Fiji.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0*; or overall grade A with High Distinction pass**; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.5***
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade B with Credit pass**; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.5***
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade S (Satisfactory)**; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.5***

*relates to Fiji National University

**relate to the University of Fiji

***relates to the University of South Pacific, Fiji

Finland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree/ Kandidaatti/ Kandidat (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution; or Bachelor degree (Ammattikorkeakoulututkinto/ Yrkeshögskoleexamen) from a recognised University of Applied Sciences.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5; or 2.8 out of 3
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or 2 out of 3
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 5; or 1.4 out of 3

France
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Grade de Licence; Diplome d'Ingenieur; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 12 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Gambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3
UK 2:1 degree: 67%; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.7 out of 4.3

Georgia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91 out of 100; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 81 out of 100; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71 out of 100; or 3.5 out of 5

Germany
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Ghana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class (Upper Division)
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class (Lower Division)

Greece
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Degrees from recognised selected institutions in the University sector or Degrees (awarded after 2003) from recognised Technological Educational Institutes.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10*; or 9 out of 10**
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10*; or 7.5 out of 10**
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10*; or 6.8 out of 10**

*Relates to degrees from the University Sector.
**Relates to degrees from Technological Educational Institutes.

Grenada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Guatemala
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 70%

The above grades assumes that the pass mark is 61% or less.

Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master; Maitrise; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; or Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Guyana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Graduate Diploma (Postgraduate) or Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Honduras
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/a / Grado Academico de Licenciatura (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Hong Kong
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Hungary
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Alapfokozat) or University Diploma (Egyetemi Oklevel) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.75 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Iceland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Baccalaureus or Bakkalarprof) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.25 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

India
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 70% to 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 60% to 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 50% to 60%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide.  

For India, offers may be made on the GPA scale.

We do not consider the Bachelor of Vocation (B. Voc.) for Masters entry.

Indonesia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Sarjna I (S1) Bachelor Degree or Diploma IV (D4) (minimum 4 years) from selected degree programmes and institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 to 2.8 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from and the degree that you study.

Iran
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17.5 to 18.5 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 to 16 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13.5 to 14 out of 20

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Iraq
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 60 out of 100

Ireland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Honours Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Grade I
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Grade II

Israel
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Italy
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Laurea (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 110 out of 110
UK 2:1 degree: 105 out of 110
UK 2:2 degree: 94 out of 110

Cote D’ivoire (Ivory Coast)
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ingenieur; Doctorat en Medicine; Maitrise; Master; Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies; or Diplome d'Etudes Superieures Specialisees from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Jamaica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies (UWI) or a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the UWI

Japan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: S overall* or A overall**; or 90%; or GPA 3.70 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: A overall* or B overall**; or 80%; or GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: B overall* or C overall**; or 70%; or GPA 2.3 out of 4.00

*Overall mark is from the grading scale: S, A, B, C (S is highest mark)
**Overall mark is from the grading scale: A, B, C, D (A is highest mark)

Jordan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA of 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA of 2.5 out of 4.0

Kazakhstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 3.8 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.33 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.67 out of 4.0/4.33; or 3.5 out of 5

Kenya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Upper Division; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Lower Division; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Kosovo
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Kuwait
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.67 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 out of 4.0

Kyrgyzstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Laos
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Latvia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded after 2002) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

Lebanon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or Grade A; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 16 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or Grade B; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 13 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or Grade C; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0; or 12 out of 20 (French system)

Lesotho
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 5 years total HE study); Masters Degree or Postgraduate Diploma from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Liberia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Libya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 3.7 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 3.0 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or 2.6 out of 4.0 GPA

Liechtenstein
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.6 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 5.0 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.4 out of 6.0

Lithuania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Luxembourg
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Macau
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Licenciatura) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Macedonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Higher Education - Level VII/1 or Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Madagascar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Diplome d'Ingenieur; Diplôme d'Etat de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d’Etat de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies; Diplôme de Magistère (Première Partie) – also known as Master 1; or Diplôme de Master – also known as Master 2 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Malawi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Malaysia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class 1; or 3.7 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:1 degree: Class 2 division 1; or 3.0 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:2 degree: Class 2 division 2; or 2.6 out of 4.0 CGPA

Maldives
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded from 2000) from the Maldives National University.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Malta
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or Category I
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours; or Category IIA
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or Category IIB

Mauritius
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I; or 70%
UK 2:1 degree: Class II division I; or 60%
UK 2:2 degree: Class II division II; or 50%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale used by your institution.

Mexico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Profesional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.0 to 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 to 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 to 7.5 out of 10

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale your institution uses.

Moldova
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Diploma de Licenta) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Monaco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Mongolia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0; or 90%; or grade A
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0; or 80%; or grade B
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.8 out of 4.0; or 70%; or grade C

Montenegro
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Academic Undergraduate Studies; Diploma of Professional Undergraduate Studies; or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Morocco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ecoles Nationales de Commerce et de Gestion; Diplome de Docteur Veterinaire; Doctorat en Medecine; Docteur en Medecine Dentaire; Licence; Diplome d'Inegeniuer d'Etat; Diplome de Doctorat en Pharmacie; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Mozambique
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado (minimum 4 years) or Grau de Mestre from from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Myanmar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA of 4.7 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA of 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA of 3.5 out of 5.0

Namibia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree or Professional Bachelor Degree (NQF level 8 qualifications) - these to be awarded after 2008 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Nepal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA of 2.4 out of 4.0

Bachelor in Nursing Science are not considered equivalent to UK Bachelor degrees.

Netherlands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

New Zealand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: A-*; or First Class Honours**
UK 2:1 degree: B*; or Second Class (Division 1) Honours**
UK 2:2 degree: C+*; or Second Class (Division 2) Honours**

*from a Bachelor degree
**from a Bachelor Honours degree

Nigeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 6.0 out of 7.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 4.6 out of 7.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.80 out of 5.00; or GPA 3.0 out of 7.0

Norway
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS (of 180 ECTS min overall) at grade A or above.
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade

Oman
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Pakistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.6 to 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.0 to 3.0 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Palestine, State of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Panama
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91%
UK 2:1 degree: 81%
UK 2:2 degree: 71%

Papua New Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I
UK 2:1 degree: Class II, division A
UK 2:2 degree: Class II, division B

Paraguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [professional title] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out fo 5

Peru
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado Academico de Bachiller or Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Philippines
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions or Juris Doctor; Bachelor of Laws; Doctor of Medicine; Doctor of Dentistry/ Optometry/ Veterinary Medicine; or Masters Degree from recognised institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 3.6 out of 4.0; or 94%; or 1.25 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.0 out of 4.0; or 86%; or 1.75 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4.0; or 80%; or 2.5 out of 5

The above 'out of 5' scale assumes 1 is highest mark and 3 is the pass mark.

Poland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licencjat or Inzynier (minimum 3 years) - these must be awarded after 2001 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.8 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.8 out of 5.0

The above grades are based on the 2 to 5 scale, where 3 is the pass mark and 5 is the highest mark.

Portugal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado (minimum 180 ECTS credits) or Diploma de Estudos Superiores Especializados (DESE) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Puerto Rico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90/100 or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80/100 or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70/100 or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Qatar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or GPA 2.8 out of 5.0

Romania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.75 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 out of 10

Russia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Rwanda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 13 out of 20

Saudi Arabia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.75 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Senegal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Master II; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA); Diplôme d'Études Supérieures Specialisées (DESS); Diplôme d'État de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d'Ingénieur; Diplôme de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; or Diplôme de Pharmacien from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16/20
UK 2:1 degree: 14/20
UK 2:2 degree: 12/20

Serbia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Sierra Leone
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Honours) or a Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class honours; or GPA 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.75 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class honours; or GPA 4 out of 5; or GPA 3.25 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or GPA 3.4 out of 5; or GPA 2.75 out of 4

Singapore
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.8 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Slovakia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 93%; or 1 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:1 degree: 86%; or 1.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:2 degree: 72%; or 2.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)

Slovenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Univerzitetni Diplomant (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Somalia
Bachelor degrees from Somalia are not considered for direct entry to our postgraduate taught programmes. Holders of Bachelor degrees from Somali National University can be considered for our Pre-Masters programmes on a case by case basis.

South Africa
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: NQF Level 8 qualifications such as Bachelor Honours degrees or Professional Bachelor degrees from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

South Korea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.2 out of 4.5; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.5; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.5; or GPA 2.8 out of 4.3; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Spain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo Universitario Oficial de Graduado en [subject area] (Grado) or Titulo Universitario Oficial de Licenciado en [subject area] (Licenciatura) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or 2.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or 2.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or 1.5 out of 4.0

Sri Lanka
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Special or Honours) or Bachelor Degree (Professional) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Sudan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution or Bachelor degree in one of the following Professional subjects: Architecture; Dentistry; Engineering; Medicine/Surgery from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sweden
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Kandidatexamen) or Professional Bachelor Degree (Yrkesexamenfrom) (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS at grade A or above (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 65% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 50% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 20% of credits graded at VG overall.

Switzerland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.5 out of 6; or 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 5 out of 6; or 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 4.25 out of 6; or 7 out of 10

Syria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%
UK 2:1 degree: 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Taiwan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 70 to 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65 to 70%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Tajikistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Specialist Diploma or Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Tanzania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 5.0

Thailand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 to 3.20 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.40 to 2.60 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Trinidad and Tobago
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies

Tunisia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome National d'Architecture; Maitrise; Diplome National d'Ingeniuer; or Doctorat en Medecine / Veterinaire from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Turkey
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.80 to 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.30 to 2.50 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.50 out of 4.00

Turkmenistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Diploma of Higher Education (awarded after 2007) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Turks and Caicos Islands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (accredited by the Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 80%
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 4.0; or 75%
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 4.0; or 65%

Uganda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0

Ukraine
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 out of 12; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 12; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 12; or 3.5 out of 5

United Arab Emirates
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

United States
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Uruguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 to 11 out of 12
UK 2:1 degree: 7 to 9 out of 12
UK 2:2 degree: 6 to 7 out of 12

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Uzbekistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71%; or 3.5 out of 5

Venezuela
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 81%
UK 2:1 degree: 71%
UK 2:2 degree: 61%

Non-percentage grading scales, for example scales out of 20, 10, 9 or 5, will have different requirements. 

Vietnam
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 5.7 out of 10; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Yemen
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters (Majister) degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Bachelor Degrees from Lebanese International University (in Yemen) can be considered for entry to postgraduate taught programmes - please see Lebanon for guidance on grade requirements for this.

Zambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Zimbabwe
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

English language requirements

If you got your degree in an English speaking country or if it was taught in English, and you studied within the last five years, you might not need an English language qualification - find out more.

English language entry requirements for programmes within the William Harvey Institute

You may be able to meet the English language requirement for your programme by joining a summer pre-sessional programme before starting your degree.

Visas and immigration

Find out how to apply for a student visa.

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