The Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM is an innovative, 18-month, bilingual programme which offers you the opportunity to benefit from combining the LLM programmes in Paris of:
- an LLM in International Business Law with QMUL
- an LLM in French and European Law with the Sorbonne.
Developed by the Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS) at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) and the Sorbonne Law School (Sorbonne), this double degree programme leads to two prestigious qualifications from two globally recognised institutions.
The aim is to provide students with a unique opportunity to study international and comparative business law; in two languages (French and English), with two renowned Institutions.
You will have the opportunity to study within both the British and French models of postgraduate education, as well as undertake tangible work experience, as part of an internship with a law firm, company or another legal context. You will develop a varied range of skills and knowledge, and experience different learning processes.
The intense mode of study aims further to enhance your competencies in time-management, prioritising, and adapting to pressure – all of which are skills anticipated by employers in the legal sector.
The aim is for you to be able to take this range of knowledge, skills, competencies and experience into your chosen career path within an increasingly international legal profession.
"The Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM in Paris is an innovative programme developed by experienced academics from both instiutions, many of whom are also practitioners. The aim is to cater to students as well as to practitioners who would like to enhance their professional knowledge and career developments. Leading to prestigious QMUL and Sorbonne qualifications, this course will provide you with in-depth immersion in commercial law from both common law and civil law frameworks. It will also allow you to perfect your command of legal English and French. To this effect, the Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM incorporates legal English and French for non-native speakers throughout the course." Academic Programme Co-Director, Jonathan Griffiths, LLM Paris Academic Programme Director, Professor of Intellectual Property Law.
“This programme of excellence will allow you to improve your legal research and writing skills. The Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM provides a wonderful opportunity to benefit from a high quality training in common and civil law in two prestigious institutions in Paris. It would be a unique cultural experience culminating with tangible work practice. It will promote your successful integration into professional fields of law. Try it out!” Academic Programme Co-Director, Professor Pierre Brunet, Agrégé des facultés de droit, Professeur de droit public à Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne.
QMUL’s LLM in Paris is taught at the University of London Institute in Paris (ULIP), in premises shared with the British Council in the 7th arrondissement, a short walk from the Champs Elysées in Paris, France.
Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM students will be taught across both sites, with QMUL classes held at ULIP and Sorbonne classes held at 12, place du Panthéon, 75005 Paris, and 21, rue Broca, 75005 Paris.
Students will benefit from access to study resources via both institutions across the 18 months.
Why study on the Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM in Paris
- The Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM includes a wide variety of modules of global legal relevance, which are taught by high profile CCLS and Sorbonne academics and prominent guest lecturers.
- You will benefit from an in-depth immersion in common and civil law environments, as offered by two institutions of outstanding international reputation.
- Many of the internationally recognised staff who teach on this programme act as advisers to governments, industry, regulatory authorities and NGOs, both nationally and internationally.
- The Paris LLM programmes of QMUL and the Sorbonne are attended by students of a wide variety of ages, nationalities and professional backgrounds – from those just starting out in their careers to those that have been practising for several years. You will join these students, as well as those taking the Double LLM specifically, becoming part of a dynamic student community.
- You will have access to dedicated law careers advisers at QMUL, who can provide support and advice to students.
- You will join classes of “Introduction to Common Law and the English Legal System” and “Critical Thinking and Writing in Law” the latter of which are designed to improve your English language writing and research in law skills.
- You will join classes of French as a Foreign Language and Legal French designed to improve your French language writing and research in law skills.
- You will be able to take part in networking and social events run by both institutions and, upon graduating, join the extensive alumni networks of both.
At the University of London Institute in Paris (ULIP) premises in central Paris, students have access to a library, computing and printing facilities, and space in which to meet up outside of classes. You will be able to access Wi-Fi in all of these areas.
Like all registered students at QMUL, students on the Double LLM have easy access to a full range of electronic resources, including LexisNexis, Westlaw and a wide range of electronic journals. The ULIP library, which looks out over the Esplanade des Invalides, holds a small number of the most prominent textbooks. You will also have access to the Cujas library and other local libraries.
If you decide to visit London you will have access to the main library sites in London, at Mile End, Lincoln's Inn Fields and the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS) Library. These all have freely available WiFi and other computing facilities.
Both Schools of Law attach great importance to the provision of support, both academic and pastoral, to its students. It recognises that there is a need for students, especially those who have come from abroad, to be able to discuss their progress and any issues relating to their studies or stay in Paris during the academic year. The Queen Mary Advice and Counselling Service offers support for emotional and personal difficulties, and helps with financial, legal and practical issues. The ULIP Student and Academic Services team can also offer some on-site assistance.
The Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM programme starts in January of each year, with registration extending over 18 months. It is offered in the full-time mode only.
This bilingual Double LLM comprises three main elements: modules taught in English by academics and guest lecturers of QMUL; modules taught in French by academics and guest lecturers of the Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne (the Sorbonne); and an internship overseen by the Sorbonne.
- Induction and start of semester 1: 13-16 January 2020
- Semester 1 ends: 19 June 2020
- Exam period: 13-17 July 2020
- Dissertation submission: August 2020
Students re-enrol online with QMUL before September, and join the Induction held by the Sorbonne in September, which includes participation of colleagues from QMUL.
- Induction and start of semester 2: September 2020
- Semester 2 ends: End of December 2020
- Exam period: Feb/March 2021
- Internship period starts: April 2021
- Internship period ends: June 2021
- Submission of Reports: End of June 2021
The QMUL component
Students on the Double LLM programme follow the International Business Law stream of the QMUL LLM in Paris, which offers flexibility across the range of modules available in the January - June semester of the Paris LLM programme, namely*:
- Copyright Law - United Kingdom & United States
- Corporate Rescue and Cross-border Insolvency
- English Contract Law
- EU and US Design Law
- EU Data Protection Law
- French & European Law Independent Research
- Information Technology Transactions: Management and Disputes
- Insurance Law
- Intellectual Property and the Life Sciences
- International and Comparative Law of Unfair Competition
- International Arbitration: Applicable Laws and Procedures
- International Arbitration: Regulation and Infrastructure
- International Commercial Arbitration (Skills and Advocacy)
- International Construction Contracts and Dispute Resolution
- International Law of Patents and Related Rights
- International Oil and Gas Law and Contracts in the Energy Transition
- International Regulation and Governance of Energy
- Introduction to Competition Law
- Law and Ethics in the Energy Sector
- Law Internship in France
- Law of Financial Crime: European & International Perspectives
- Licensing IP
- Mergers and Acquisitions
- Mining & Natural Resources Law
- New Boundaries in Competition Enforcement
- Securities and markets regulation
Dates for individual modules can be found on the LLM in Paris module list.
*Note that not all of the modules listed may be available in any one year. Module teachers, teaching dates and times may be subject to change (CCLS will work to ensure students are notified of any changes as soon as possible). Please also note that timetable restrictions can sometimes prevent the choice of certain combinations of modules.
Study will be both in the classroom during contact hours with academics and self-directed (with support via the online learning environment QMPlus). The taught elements of modules are generally delivered in a block style of teaching over intensive daytimes, evenings, or occasional Saturdays. The spread of your studies across the semester will depend, in part, on your module choices.
A module calendar is provided in advance of Enrolment, to all students with offers. This includes details of provisional exam dates, Critical Thinking and Writing in Law Classes, coursework and dissertation submission deadlines, and other information.
The Sorbonne component
Students follow the French and European Law stream of the LLM at the Sorbonne, which also offers a wide range of modules to students, including a compulsory module of: “Introduction to French Law” and a choice across:
- Droit des sociétés
- Droit des entreprises
- Droit européen de la concurrence
- Responsabilité civile
- Droit constitutionnel
- Droit administratif
- Droit international privé
- Droit européen de la propriété intellectuelle
- Droit du marché unique
- Libertés fondamentales
- Droit des contrats
Induction and choosing your modules
QMUL runs a four-day induction period in Paris in January, which includes an overview of the programme and module selection, dissertation and research skills, as well as introductions to careers, library resources, and the Critical Thinking and Writing in Law course.
It is a requirement that you attend the induction as it is a key time to meet fellow students and a number of staff from London and the Sorbonne, as well as ensure that you are all set for your studies ahead. You will also need to confirm your final module choices for the first semester by the last day of induction.
You will join the Induction at the Sorbonne at the start of the semester in September, and select your modules for that semester at that time.
Programmes Co-Ordinator, CCLS Paris
Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS), Queen Mary University of London, 67-69 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3JB
Telephone: +44 (0) 207 882 7282
University of London Institute in Paris
9-11 rue Constantine
Tel: +33 (0) 1 44 11 73 83
Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne
12, place du Panthéon, 75005 Paris, and
21, rue Broca, 75005 Paris
For more information:
- Applications for January 2020 are now open and close on 1 August 2019.
- Sorbonne Interviews: mid-September 2019
- Non-refundable Deposit payment: November 2019
Important note: To join the programme, applicants must allow enough time to meet both the academic and English language (if applicable) entry requirements and allow enough time to organise a visa (if applicable).
Important note: By submitting an application to the Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM programme, applicants consent to all data being shared between Queen Mary University of London and the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne.
Applicants to the Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM programme must meet academic, English language and French language requirements in order to be admitted to the programme.
Applicants must ensure that you send a complete application, including academic qualifications and evidence of English language ability. French language ability will be assessed by interview. Please see below for further details.
Please note that a non-refundable deposit of €3,000 is requested of successful applicants to this programme, to be paid once your place is confirmed.
- Academic certificates and transcripts
- Evidence of English language ability (for non-native speakers)
- Personal Statement
- Curriculum Vitae
- Two reference letters: one academic, one professional
- Signed declaration confirming your understanding of the cost implications of living in Paris, a template copy of which is available here [word] or [PDF].
Law Entry Requirements
The usual qualification for entry to the Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM programme is a degree in law, or a degree with a substantial law content, normally of at least upper-second class honours (or equivalent).
We consider every application on a case-by-case basis and anticipate that some applicants will be practising lawyers who have qualified either in France or their home jurisdiction and will have legal work experience, which will also be taken into account.
Non-law graduates may be considered on the basis of exceptional professional experience that directly relates to the LLM.
- Non-law graduates with good honours, who have also obtained the equivalent of good honours in CPE and Bar Finals/Legal Practice examinations, or passed the solicitors’ qualifying examination, may qualify.
- Law graduates with high 2.2 honours and at least five years professional legal experience may also qualify.
Students from outside of the UK help form a global community of Queen Mary and Sorbonne students in Paris. For detailed country specific entry requirements please visit the International section of our website.
Language Entry Requirements
English language requirements
Non-native English speakers are required to demonstrate that they meet the Queen Mary minimum English language entry requirements through a recognised English language qualification, namely IELTS, or the PTE Academic English Test.
Since test centres and test dates can often be booked up well in advance, we strongly recommend that students make contact with their preferred option in good time. The British Council is an example of a teaching and test centre with which students can register in order to take a test to demonstrate their English-language qualifications. Visit the British Council website for information regarding exam dates and requirements in Paris.
Please note that Queen Mary can also accept the internet-based TOEFL English language qualification for this programme. In this case, students are required to demonstrate an overall score of minimum 100, with 27 in writing (Listening 17, Reading 18, and Speaking 20).
Please further note that due to the start-dates of the Double LLM programme, it is not possible for students to take the pre-sessional English classes offered by QMUL in London.
French language requirements
Non-native French speakers are required to demonstrate that they meet the Sorbonne minimum French language entry requirement of CEFR level B2. This is assessed through a Skype or telephone interview with representatives from the Sorbonne’s selection committee. The interview will be carried out exclusively in French and will last for approximately 20 minutes. It is therefore not necessary to include evidence of a French language test certificate at the application stage, although you may if you already have one.
Application Procedure – what to expect
Upon receipt of your application, you will receive acknowledgement from the QMUL Admissions Office, who will begin the process of considering your eligibility for the programme.
Assuming that academic and English language entry requirements are fulfilled, the application will be passed to the selection committee at the Sorbonne in early September, for further consideration.
Applicants will be contacted directly by the Sorbonne selection committee in order to arrange an interview, at which your French language ability will be assessed. The interviews are expected to take place in the second and third weeks of September.
Applicants will receive notification of the outcome of the interview and the application to the programme. This will be sent by the QMUL Admissions Office in early October.
Successful applicants will then be sent further information and requested to pay the non-refundable deposit in order for funds to be received by QMUL no later than 8 November 2019.
Further information regarding pre-enrolment, tuition fee payment, enrolment, induction, etc will follow in due course.
Learning and teaching
As a student of the Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM, you will benefit from the teaching styles and pedagogy of two different institutions in Paris.
As a postgraduate student, you will play an active part in your acquisition of skills and knowledge. We strongly encourage you to take advantage of the student environment in Paris; to engage and exchange with your fellow students; to make use of the libraries and other resources available to you; and to take up opportunities to attend seminars and networking events held in Paris.
You will learn through direct interaction with lecturers using a variety of teaching and learning strategies, including traditional and interactive lectures, small group teaching, seminar sessions, tutorials and e-learning, both in French and English. The taught elements usually involve small class sizes often of no more than 20. The classes are designed to generate informed discussion around set topics, and may involve student presentations, group exercises and role-plays as well as interactive discussions.
You will also learn through direct experience, as delivered through the internship element of the programme *. This element will introduce you to the expectations of the working environment in which you will apply your legal knowledge and competencies.
Independent, self-directed study is a key element of postgraduate studies. For every hour spent in classes you will be expected to complete further hours of independent study. Your individual study time should be spent preparing for, or following up on formal study sessions; reading; producing written work; and revising for examinations. For the modules taught by QMUL, you will have access to the online learning environment, QMPlus, through which you will be provided with tools and guidance for managing your study requirements across the semester.
The direction of your individual study will be guided by the formal study sessions you attend, along with your reading lists and assignments. However, we expect you to demonstrate an active role in your own learning by reading widely and expanding your own knowledge, understanding and critical ability. Significant electronic and physical library resources will be at your disposal, and we strongly recommend you make good use of them.
Independent study will foster in you the ability to identify your own learning needs and determine which areas you need to focus on to become proficient in your subject area. This is an important transferable skill both for career development and for preparing for the transition to working life.
Critical Thinking and Writing in Law (in English)
LLM students in Paris benefit from Queen Mary University of London’s English language support, as writing within a specific discipline at postgraduate level is a skill that needs mastering. The Critical Thinking and Writing in Law course has hands-on workshops and online support that will allow you to deepen your understanding of the learning strategies required for postgraduate study, and which will help you to improve your research and writing skills, as well as provide you with the confidence necessary to meet the requirements and demands of the LLM and, in particular, its assessment. You will be given the opportunity to practise the skills required at LLM level, receive feedback on your performance, and critically reflect on your own work.
As well as remote support via email and QMPlus (the online learning environment) there will be six full-day sessions in Paris, which, if not a requirement of your offer, are strongly recommended.
French as a Foreign Language and Legal French
Double LLM students benefit from French language support, with classes taught by academic staff of the Sorbonne.The syllabus covers, amongst other areas, legal French with a focus on academic methodological materials and skills.
Assessment is overseen by each of the institutions.
For modules taught by Queen Mary University of London, assessment is usually by unseen written examinations, coursework essay, in-class presentations, or Final Assessment Exercises. This is in addition to the compulsory dissertation in English.
For the Sorbonne, assessment is usually by unseen written examinations of 3 hours or oral examinations of 15 minutes per student but, in certain cases other assessment methods may be used, such as in class presentations, course essays, or oral reports. This is in addition to the compulsory internship report (or by exception only, a dissertation) in French.
All Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM students have to carry out research to complete a dissertation of 10000 words in English. For this purpose they have access to a variety of legal resources and receive training on how to use them. An individual dissertation supervisor is allocated by QMUL for each student.
Should a student not succeed in securing an internship, s/he will undertake a dissertation of in French, as supervised by a member of the Sorbonne’s School of Law.
The internship element is undertaken as of April of the second calendar year of study (ie the equivalent of the third semester of the programme).
The internship must be conducted over a minimum of three months, generally in-house or with a law firm, though other legal contexts are also recognised. It is expected that students will find internships in France, but internships conducted in French elsewhere in Europe may also be acceptable.
It is the students’ responsibility, with support from the Sorbonne, to secure the internship in advance of the third semester. Whilst the Sorbonne will make its best endeavours to assist students in securing internship placements for these three months, should, for whatever reason, a student fail to secure an internship for the expected period, they would still be able to secure credit towards the programme, and acquire new skills, in the research and writing of a dissertation in French.
Academic oversight of the internship element is by the Sorbonne. Students who successfully secure internships must liaise with the Sorbonne in order to arrange for a Convention de Stage (a tri-partite agreement between the university, the student and the employer). The Sorbonne also oversees assessment of the internship through written work and a viva in French in June/July. QMUL will recognise the credits generated by the internship element (or the French dissertation, if necessary) through mark equivalency of the grades attributed by the Sorbonne. Both Co-Directors of the Double LLM will be on the jury of the viva.
The aim of the internship is for students to take advantage of work-based learning which is invaluable for lawyers. Whether you intend to embark on a legal career in a law firm, in-house, or elsewhere within the legal profession, the application of knowledge as well as the acquisition of practical, inter-personal and other soft-skills within the workplace brings to life what LLM students learn in the classroom, and enables you to put your academic learning into practice in real-life contexts.
Involvement with case(s), liaising with clients, drafting notes and other legal documents, and generally contributing to tangible work outputs delivered to specific deadlines, promotes learning of key employment attributes including teamwork, initiative, and working under pressure. At the same time, applying knowledge and understanding when contributing to advice given to clients (internal or external), is an academic exercise in its own right, but within a different context from the classroom. Furthermore, in applying for internships, you will learn skills in presenting yourself to employers, interview techniques, and indeed strategy in terms of where to apply, how and when.
Experience in a particular sector of the legal profession – whether in-house or in a firm – can further assist a student in making future career decisions, based on that experience and the pros and cons that go with it.
The Convention de Stage also anticipates a member of the firm/company taking responsibility for the intern. Being “taken under the wing” of a colleague at the firm or company with which you undertake your internship means that you can benefit from one-to-one exchange on the various issues (whether legal content, time management and prioritisation of workload etc) which arise in the workplace. It also facilitates interaction and feedback which is different from, but complementary to, that acquired in the classroom setting.
The Programme is organised jointly by QMUL and Sorbonne, and is overseen by the Co-Directors: Professor Jonathan Griffiths and Professor Pierre Brunet. For more information on the Programme Directors, and a list of module convenors and previous guest lecturers, please refer to the Profiles tab.
2018/19 Academic Year
The tuition fee for the Sorbonne-QMUL Double LLM is 30,000 EUROS for Home, EU and International students.
There are a number of sources of funding available for Masters students.
These include a significant package of competitive Queen Mary bursaries and scholarships in a range of subject areas, as well as external sources of funding.
School of Law scholarships
The School of Law offers a range of scholarships for Law Masters programmes each year. Full details are made available on the law funding page from October – November each year.
Queen Mary bursaries and scholarships
We offer a range of bursaries and scholarships for Masters students including competitive scholarships, bursaries and awards, some of which are for applicants studying specific subjects.
Read more about funding a masters
Alternative sources of funding
Home/EU students can apply for a range of other funding, such as Professional and Career Development Loans, and Employer Sponsorship, depending on their circumstances and the specific programme of study.
Overseas students may be eligible to apply for a range of external scholarships and we also provide information about relevant funding providers in your home country.
Detailed information about postgraduate funding options is available in our Postgraduate Funding Guide.
Read more about funding a masters.
Tel: +44 (0)20 7882 5079
Other financial help on offer at Queen Mary
We offer one to one specialist support on all financial and welfare issues through our Advice and Counselling Service, which you can access as soon as you have applied for a place at Queen Mary.
Our Advice and Counselling Service also has lots of Student Advice Guides on all aspects of finance including:
Tel: +44 (0)20 7882 8717
Double LLM Programme Co-Directors
Jonathan Griffiths is Professor of Intellectual Property Law at Queen Mary University of London. He has degrees in English Literature and History and qualified as a solicitor before taking up positions at Nottingham Law School and Queen Mary. He teaches various areas of Intellectual Property Law, specialising in Copyright Law. Prof. Griffiths is also Director of the LLM in Paris programme.
Pierre Brunet is a member of the Sorbonne Law School at the Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. He teaches various areas of Public Law, specialising in Legal Theory, Constitutional Law and Public Economic Law. Pierre Brunet is also Director of the LLM in French and European Law at the Sorbonne.
Double LLM Programme Module Convenors
Queen Mary University of London Academics teaching on the Double LLM include:
- Gaetano Dimita, Lecturer in International Intellectual Property Law
- Gail Evans, Reader in International Trade and Intellectual Property Law
- Remy Gerbay, Lecturer in Arbitration and International Commercial Law
- Miriam Goldby, Senior Lecturer in Law
- Raphael Heffron, Senior Lecturer in Energy and Natural Resources Law
- Lord Hoffmann, Honorary Professor of Intellectual Property Law
- Rosa Maria Lastra, Professor in International Financial and Monetary Law
- Duncan Matthews, Professor of Intellectual Property Law
- Sypros Maniatis, Professor of Intellectual Property Law and Director of CCLS
- Loukas Mistelis, Clive M Schmitthoff Professor of Transnational Commercial Law and Arbitration
- Valsamis Mitsilegas, Head of the Department of Law and Professor of European Criminal Law
- David Musker, Professor of International Design Law
- Rodrigo Olivares-Caminal, Lecturer in Banking and Finance
- Philip Rawlings, The Roy Goode Professor of Commercial Law
- Costanza Russo, Leverhulme Senior Lecturer in Banking Law
- Maxi Scherer, LLM Paris Academic Programme Director, Senior Lecturer in International Arbitration and Energy
- Noam Shemtov, Senior Lecturer in Intellectual Property and Technology Law
- Uma Suthersanen, Professor of International Intellectual Property Law
- Guido Westkamp, Professor in Intellectual Property and Comparative Law
Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne Academics teaching on the Double LLM include:
- François Ameli, Docteur en droit international
- Julie Benetti, Professeure de droit public
- Ridha Ben Hamza, Professeur agrégé et Co-directeur du Master II professionnel juristes de droit social
- Pierre Brunet, Professeur de droit public
- Nora Caffin, avocate au Barreau de Paris
- Jean-Philippe Derosier, Professeur de Droit
- Joan Divol, Docteur en droit privé et Maître de Conférences
- Muriel Fabre-Magnan, Professeure en droit privé
- Estelle Gallant, Docteur en droit privé et Maître de conférences
- Jeremy Heymann, Maître de conférences en droit privé
- Benoit Lecourt, Docteur en droit et spécialiste de droit des affaires
- Christophe Lemaire, Maître de conférences
- Christine Pauti, Maître de conférences
- Isabelle Pingel, Professeure agrégée
- Anne Rigaux, Maître de Conférences
- David Sindres, Maître de conférences
- Guillaume Simiand, Professeur agrégé
- David Soldini, Docteur en droit public et Maître de conferences
Visiting Professors and Guest Speakers
Visiting Professors and Guest Speakers include or have included among others:
- Carlos Bellorin, Principal Petroleum Analyst, IHS, Visiting Professor SciencesPo
- George A Bermann, Gellhorn Professor of Law & Jean Monnet Professor of European Union Law, Columbia University School of Law, Visiting Professor SciencesPo Law School
- Elena L Daly, Principal of EM Conseil, a Paris-based advisory firm
- Silke Goldberg, Counsel, Herbert Smith Freehills
- Sir Roy Goode, Emeritus Professor of Law, Oxford University
- Eva Lein, Herbert Smith Senior Research Fellow, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London
- Julian Lew QC, Professor and Honorary Fellow of the College, Head of School of International Arbitration
- Isabelle Michou, Partner, Herbert Smith, Paris
- Linda Silberman, Martin Lipton Professor of Law, NYU Law School
- Michael Young, Partner, Allen & Overy, Paris
- Jason Fry, Partner Clifford Chance Paris
- Jose Ferris, Deputy General Secretary ICC Paris.