Dr Timothy CliftonReader in Relativity and CosmologyEmail: email@example.comTelephone: 020 7882 7024Room Number: G. O. Jones Building, Room 508ProfileTeachingResearchPublicationsSupervisionGrantsProfileI'm a theoretical cosmologist who builds mathematical models of the Universe, in order to understand what cosmological observations can tell us about relativistic gravity and the large-scale structure of space-time. I graduated with a PhD from the University of Cambridge in 2006, and have worked as a post-doctoral researcher at Stanford University as a Lindemann Fellow, at the University of Oxford as a Junior Research Fellow of Jesus College, and at CERN as a CERN Fellow. I joined Queen Mary in 2012 as a Advanced Fellow of the STFC research council, and am now a Reader in the Astronomy Unit of the School of Physics and Astronomy. I am a long standing member of the Gravitational Physics Group at the Institute of Physics, and am a member of the editorial board of Classical and Quantum Gravity. I am also the admissions tutor for PhD programmes in astronomy at Queen Mary.TeachingI lecture modules on Quantum Mechanics A and Relativity & Gravitation, and supervise projects in relativity and cosmology. In the past I have taught Quantum Mechanics, Electromagnetism and Special Relativity at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford.ResearchResearch Interests:My research interests are in relativity, gravitation, and cosmology. I am particularly interested in the large-scale behaviour of inhomogeneous spacetimes, the emergence of homogeneity and isotropy in the context of the averaging and backreaction problems, the construction of tests for determining the geometry of the Universe, and the understanding and constraining of alternative theories of gravity. As well as being of foundational importance to cosmology, the study of these areas is strongly motivated by the apparent need for the universe to be more than two thirds filled with dark energy.PublicationsRecent publication and preprints can be found here. Anton T, Clifton T (2023). Modelling the emergence of cosmic anisotropy from non-linear structures. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/acdbfd QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/89439 Thomas DB, Clifton T, Anton T (2023). Scale-dependent gravitational couplings in Parameterised Post-Newtonian Cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2023/04/016 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/86051 Anton T, Clifton T (2022). The momentum constraint equation in parameterised post-Newtonian cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/ac5fc3 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/78815 Fernandes PGS, Carrilho P, Clifton T et al. (2022). The 4D Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet theory of gravity: a review. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/ac500a QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/77580 Gallagher CS, Clifton T, Clarkson C (2021). Multi-Scale Perturbation Theory II: Solutions and Leading-Order Bispectrum in the $Λ$CDM Universe. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2021/08/048 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/73960 Fernandes PGS, Carrilho P, Clifton T et al. (2021). Black Holes in the Scalar-Tensor Formulation of 4D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity: Uniqueness of Solutions, and a New Candidate for Dark Matter. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.044029 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/73862 Clifton T, Carrilho P, Fernandes PGS et al. (2020). Observational constraints on the regularized 4D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.102.084005 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/67659 Fernandes PGS, Carrilho P, Clifton T et al. (2020). Derivation of Regularized Field Equations for the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Theory in Four Dimensions. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.102.024025 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/65708 Clifton T, Gallagher CS, Goldberg S et al. (2020). Viable Gauge Choices in Cosmologies with Non-Linear Structures. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.101.063530 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/63539 Gallagher CS, Clifton T, Clarkson C (2020). Multi-scale perturbation theory. Part I. Methodology and leading-order bispectrum corrections in the matter-dominated era. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2020/03/011 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/64112 Clifton T, Sussman RA (2019). Cosmological Backreaction in Spherical and Plane Symmetric Dust-Filled Space-Times. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/ab3a14 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/59843 Durk J, Clifton T (2019). Discrete Cosmological Models in the Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/ab329e QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/59477 Clifton T, Sanghai VAA (2019). Parametrizing theories of gravity on large and small scales in cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.011301 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/54505 Gallagher CS, Clifton T (2018). Relativistic Euler equations in cosmologies with nonlinear structures. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.98.103516 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/54815 CLIFTON TA, Bentivegna E, DURK J et al. (2018). Black-Hole Lattices as Cosmological Models. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aac846 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/42983 Goldberg SR, Gallagher C, Clifton T (2017). Perturbation theory for cosmologies with non-linear structure. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.96.103508 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/28975 Durk J, Clifton T (2017). A quasi-static approach to structure formation in black hole universes. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/10/012 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/28977 Sanghai VAA, Fleury P, Clifton T (2017). Ray tracing and Hubble diagrams in post-Newtonian cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/07/028 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/28364 Clifton T, Carr B, Coley A (2017). Persistent black holes in bouncing cosmologies. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aa6dbb QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/32421 Bibi R, Clifton T, Durk J (2017). Cosmological solutions with charged black holes. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1007/s10714-017-2261-4 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/32422 CLIFTON TA, Durk J (2017). Exact initial data for black hole universes with a cosmological constant. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aa6064 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/21339 Clifton T, Barrow JD (2017). Decay of the Cosmic Vacuum Energy. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51700-1_6 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/54506 CLIFTON TA, Sanghai V (2017). Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aa5d75 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/19554 Goldberg S, Clifton TA, Malik K (2017). Cosmology on all scales: A two-parameter perturbation expansion. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.043503 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/19364 Clifton T, Gregoris D, Rosquist K (2017). The Magnetic Part of the Weyl Tensor, and the Expansion of Discrete Universes. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1007/s10714-017-2192-0 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/19131 Clifton T, Gregoris D, Rosquist K (2017). The magnetic part of the Weyl tensor, and the expansion of discrete universes. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1007/s10714-017-2192-0 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/54508 Sanghai VAA, Clifton T (2016). Cosmological backreaction in the presence of radiation and a cosmological constant. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.023505 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/14731 Sanghai VAA, Clifton T (2016). Erratum: Post-Newtonian cosmological modelling (Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology (2015) 91 (103532)). nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.089903 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/32423 Clifton T, Gregoris D, Rosquist K (2015). Applications of black hole lattices in relativistic cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1063/1.4937219 QMRO: qmroHref Sanghai VAA, Clifton T (2015). Post-Newtonian cosmological modelling. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.103532 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18068 Clifton T, Dunsby PKS (2015). On the emergence of accelerating cosmic expansion in f(R) theories of gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.91.103528 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17810 CLIFTON T (2015). BACK-REACTION IN RELATIVISTIC COSMOLOGY. The Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting DOI: 10.1142/9789814623995_0496 QMRO: qmroHref Clarkson C, Clifton T, Coley A et al. (2014). Erratum: Observational constraints on the averaged universe (Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology (2012) 85 (043506)). nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.049903 QMRO: qmroHref Clifton T (2014). The Method of Images in Cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/31/17/175010 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17811 Clifton T, Gregoris D, Rosquist K (2014). Piecewise Silence in Discrete Cosmological Models. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/31/10/105012 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17812 Clifton T, Gregoris D, Rosquist K et al. (2013). Exact Evolution of Discrete Relativistic Cosmological Models. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/11/010 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17818 Clifton T, Ellis GFR, Tavakol R (2013). A Gravitational Entropy Proposal. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/30/12/125009 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17820 CLIFTON TA (2013). BACK-REACTION IN RELATIVISTIC COSMOLOGY. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1142/S0218271813300048 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17821 CLIFTON TA (2013). G. F. R. Ellis, R. Maartens and M. A. H. MacCallum: Relativistic cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1007/s10714-013-1543-8 QMRO: qmroHref Clifton T, Dunsby P, Goswami R et al. (2012). On the absence of the usual weak-field limit, and the impossibility of embedding some known solutions for isolated masses in cosmologies with f(R) dark energy. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.87.063517 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/3762 Clifton T, Coley A, Hoogen RVD (2012). Observational Cosmology in Macroscopic Gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2012/10/044 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/3761 Clifton T, Rosquist K, Tavakol R (2012). An exact quantification of backreaction in relativistic cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.043506 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17819 CLIFTON TA, Bull P (2012). Local and non-local measures of acceleration in cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: doi QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18954 Clarkson C, Clifton T, Coley A et al. (2012). Observational constraints on the averaged universe. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.043506 QMRO: qmroHref CLIFTON TA, BULL, P, FERREIRA PG (2012). The kSZ effect as a test of general radial inhomogeneity in LTB cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.024002 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/57041 Clifton T, Clarkson C, Bull P (2012). Isotropic Blackbody Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation as Evidence for a Homogeneous Universe. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.051303 QMRO: qmroHref Bull P, Clifton T (2012). Local and nonlocal measures of acceleration in cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.103512 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/57035 Clifton T, Clarkson C, Bull P (2011). The isotropic blackbody CMB as evidence for a homogeneous universe. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.051303 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17842 Clifton T, Ferreira PG, O'Donnell K (2011). An Improved Treatment of Optics in the Lindquist-Wheeler Models. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.85.023502 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17823 Shafieloo A, Clifton T, Ferreira P (2011). The crossing statistic: dealing with unknown errors in the dispersion of Type Ia supernovae. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2011/08/017 QMRO: qmroHref Clifton T, Ferreira PG, Padilla A et al. (2011). Modified Gravity and Cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1016/j.physrep.2012.01.001 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17822 Clifton T (2011). Is Dark Energy an illusion?. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1016/j.ppnp.2011.01.004 QMRO: qmroHref Clifton T, Bañados M, Skordis C (2010). The Parameterised Post-Newtonian Limit of Bimetric Theories of Gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/27/23/235020 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17850 Clifton T (2010). Cosmology Without Averaging. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/28/16/164011 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17847 Clifton T, Zlosnik TG (2010). FRW cosmology in Milgrom's bimetric theory of gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.81.103525 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17848 Clifton T, Barrow JD (2010). Observational Constraints on the Completeness of Space near Astrophysical Objects. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.81.063006 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17851 Clifton T, Ferreira PG (2009). Errors in Estimating Omega_Lambda due to the Fluid Approximation. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2009/10/026 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17849 Clifton T, Ferreira PG (2009). Archipelagian Cosmology: Dynamics and Observables in a Universe with Discretized Matter Content. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.103503 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17843 Clifton T, Ferreira PG (2009). Does dark energy really exist?. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1038/scientificamerican0409-48 QMRO: qmroHref Clarkson C, Clifton T, February S (2009). Perturbation Theory in Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Cosmology. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2009/06/025 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17865 Clifton T, Ferreira PG, Zuntz J (2009). What the small angle CMB really tells us about the curvature of the Universe. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2009/07/029 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17844 Clifton T, Zuntz J (2009). Hubble Diagram Dispersion From Large-Scale Structure. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15616.x QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17863 Clifton T (2008). Higher Powers in Gravitation. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.78.083501 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17873 Clifton T, Ferreira PG, Land K (2008). Living in a Void: Testing the Copernican Principle with Distant Supernovae. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.131302 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17866 Clifton T (2008). Properties of Black Hole Radiation From Tunnelling. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/25/17/175022 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17870 Clifton T (2008). The Parameterised Post-Newtonian Limit of Fourth-Order Theories of Gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.77.024041 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17872 Clifton T, Weisberg JM (2007). A Simple Model for Pulse Profiles from Precessing Pulsars, with Special Application to Relativistic Binary PSR B1913+16. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1086/587049 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17868 Clifton T, Shenker S, Sivanandam N (2007). Volume Weighted Measures of Eternal Inflation in the Bousso-Polchinski Landscape. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/09/034 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18032 Clifton T (2007). Exact Friedmann Solutions in Higher-Order Gravity Theories. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/24/20/010 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17878 Clifton T, Barrow JD (2007). The Ups and Downs of Cyclic Universes. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.75.043515 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17879 Clifton T, Linde A, Sivanandam N (2007). Islands in the landscape. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/02/024 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17891 Clifton T (2006). Spherically Symmetric Solutions to Fourth-Order Theories of Gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/23/24/015 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17890 Barrow JD, Clifton T (2006). Cosmologies with Energy Exchange. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.73.103520 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18030 Clifton T, Barrow JD (2006). Decaying Gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.73.104022 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18042 Clifton T, Barrow JD (2006). Further Exact Cosmological Solutions to Higher-Order Gravity Theories. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/23/9/011 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18044 Clifton T, Barrow JD (2005). The Existence of Godel, Einstein and de Sitter Universes. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.72.123003 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18065 Barrow JD, Clifton T (2005). Exact cosmological solutions of scale-invariant gravity theories. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/23/1/l01 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18067 Clifton T, Barrow JD (2005). The Power of General Relativity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.72.103005 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18045 Clifton T, Barrow JD, Scherrer RJ (2005). Constraints on the Variation of G from Primordial Nucleosynthesis. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1103/physrevd.71.123526 QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18066 Clifton T, Mota DF, Barrow JD (2004). Inhomogeneous Gravity. nameOfConference DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08831.x QMRO: https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/18046 SupervisionThis is not an exhaustive list and I would be happy to discuss other project possibilities. Project Title Frontiers of Precision Cosmology Foundations of relativistic cosmology GrantsI am supported by the STFC.