Skip to main content
School of Geography

Friso Marc De Graaf


PhD Student



Research Interests: Climate change, geochemistry, oceanography, and the Pliocene.


PhD Project: The Impact of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation on Deep and Intermediate Ocean Circulation

The late Pliocene was the most recent geological period with average global temperatures warmer than the present, and this was followed by a rapid expansion of ice sheets across the Northern Hemisphere. Understanding this process will help us to better understand the climate dynamics that might shape our future climate. Ocean circulation modulates the climate through transport of heat and carbon around the world. The circulation patterns of the deep and intermediate Pacific Ocean appears to have changed considerably during this glaciation. Using trace metals and radiogenic elements contained in the calcite tests of foraminifera, my research aims to better constrain the dynamics driving the ocean circulation during this time.


Academic Background:

MSci Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge - 2021

BA Natural Sciences, University of Cambridge - 2020



Dr Heather Ford, School of Geography, QMUL

Prof David Thornalley, Department of Geography, UCL

Dr David Wilson, Department of Earth Sciences, UCL


Funding: London NERC DTP 



Back to top