Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine - Barts and The London

Blood pressure trial meta-analysis audit trail:

Web references



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Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group. Five-year findings of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. III. Reduction in stroke incidence among persons with high blood pressure. JAMA 1982;247:633-38



Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group. Therapeutic control of blood pressure after one year in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. Prev Med 1979;8:2-13



Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S, Hebert P, Fiebach NH, Eberlein KA, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet 1990;335:827-38



The INDANA (Individual Data ANalysis of Antihypertensive intervention trials) Project Collaborators. Effect of antihypertensive treatment in patients having already suffered from stroke. Stroke 1997;28:2557-62



Boutitie F, Gueyffier F, Pocock SJ, Boissel JP. Assessing treatment-time interaction in clinical trials with time to event data: a meta-analysis of hypertension trials. Statist Med 1998;17:2883-2903



SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA 1991;265:3255-64



Perry HM, Smith WM, McDonald RH, Black D, Cutler JA, Furberg CD, et al. Morbidity and mortality in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP) pilot study. Stroke 1989;20:4-13



Amery A, Birkenhager W, Brixko P, Bulpitt C, Clement D, Deruyttere M, et al. Mortality and morbidity results from the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly (EWPHE) trial. Lancet 1985;1:1349-54



Australian National Blood Pressure Management Committee. The Australian therapeutic trial in mild hypertension. Lancet 1980;i:1261-7



Helgeland A. Treatment of mild hypertension: a five year controlled drug trial. The Oslo Study. Am J Med 1980;69:725-32



Veterans Administration/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (VA-NHLBI) Study Group for Evaluating Treatment in Mild Hypertension. Evaluation of drug treatment in mild hypertension: VA-NHLBI feasibility trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1978;304:267-88



Medical Research Council (MRC) Working Party. MRC trial of treatment of mild hypertension: principal results. BMJ 1985;291:97-104



Medical Research Council (MRC) Working Party. MRC trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults: principal results. BMJ 199-2;304:405-12



Bulpitt CJ, Beckett NS, Cooke J, Dumitrascu DL, Gil-Extremera B, Nachev C, et al on behalf of the HYpertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET) Working Group. Results of the pilot study for the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial. J Hypertens 2003;21:2409-17



UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group (UKPDS). Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. BMJ 1998;317:703-13



UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. BMJ 1998;317:713-20



The DREAM (Diabetes Reduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication) Investigators. Effect of ramipril on the incidence of diabetes. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1551-62



Asselbergs FW, Diercks GFH, Hillege HL, van Boven AJ, Janssen WMT, Voors AA, et al for the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease Intervention Trial (PREVENDIT) Investigators. Effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria. Circulation 2004;110:2809-16



Lui L, Zhang Y, Liu G, Li W, Zhang X, Zanchetti A for the FEVER Study Group. The felodipine event reduction (FEVER) Study: a randomized long-term placebo-controlled trial in Chinese hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2005;23:2157-72



Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, Celis H, Arabidze GG, Birkenhäger et al for the Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Lancet 1997;350:757-64



Liu L, Wang JG, Gong L, Liu G, Staessen JA for the Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group. Comparison of active treatment and placebo in older Chinese patients with isolated systolic hypertension. J Hypertens 1998;16:1823-9



Ming S, Hongyan Z, Zhen J, et al. Prevention and treatment of stroke after hypertension for ten years in Hunan Province. Chin J Intern Med 1997;36:312-4



ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and diamicroN-mr Controlled Evaluation) trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370:829-40



Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Hahlöf B, Elmfeldt D, Julius S, et al for the HOT Study Group. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet 1998;351:1755-62



Schrier RW, Estacio RO, Esler A, Mehler P. Effects of aggressive blood pressure control in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients on albuminuria, retinopathy and strokes (the second Appropriate Blood Pressure Control in Diabetes (ABCD-2) trial). Kidney Int 2002;61:1086-97



Hansson L for the BBB Study Group. The BBB study: The effect of intensified antihypertensive treatment on the level of blood pressure, side-effects, morbidity and mortality in “well-treated” hypertensive patients. Blood Pressure 1994;3:248-54



Neaton JD, Grimm RH, Prineas RJ, Stamler J, Grandits GA, Elmer PJ, et al for the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) Research Group. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study. JAMA 1993;270:713-24



Dahlöf B, Lindholm LH, Hansson L, Scherstén B, Ekbom T, Wester PO. Morbidity and mortality in the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with hypertension (STOP-hypertension). Lancet 1991;338:1281-5



Coope J, Warrender TS. Randomised trial of treatment of Hypertension in the Elderly in Primary care (HEP). BMJ 1986;293:1145-51



Smith WM for the US Public Health Service (USPHS) Hospitals Cooperative Study Group. Treatment of mild hypertension: results of a ten-year intervention trial. Circ Res 1977;40 (suppl I):98-105



Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension: II (VAII). Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90 through 114mmHg. JAMA 1970;213:1143-52



Veterans Administration (VA) Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension: I (VAI). Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 115 through 129 mmHg. JAMA 1967;202:1028-34



The Norwegian Multicenter Study Group. Timolol-induced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1981;304:801-7



Pedersen TR. A multicentre study on timolol in secondary prevention after myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 1983;suppl674:1-129



b-Blocker Heart Attack Trial (BHAT) Research Group. A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction: I mortality results. JAMA 1982;247:1707-14



b-Blocker Heart Attack Trial Research Group. A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction: II morbidity results. JAMA 1983;250:2814-9



Multicentre International Study. Improvement in prognosis of myocardial infarction by long-term beta-adrenoreceptor blockade using practolol. BMJ 1975;3:735-40



The European Infarction Study (EIS) Group. A secondary prevention study with slow release oxprenolol after myocardial infarction morbidity and mortality. Eur Heart J 1984;5:189-202



The Capricorn Investigators. Effect of carvedilol on outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction: the CAPRICORN (Carvedilol Post-infarct Survival Control in LV Dysfunction) randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357:1385-90



Schwartz PJ, Motolese M, Pollavini G, Lotto A, Ruberti U, Trazzi R, et al for the Italian Sudden Death Prevention Group (ISDPG). Prevention of sudden cardiac death after a first myocardial infarction by pharmacologic or surgical antiadrenergic interventions. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1992;3:2-16



Hansteen V, Møinichen E, Lorentsen E, Andersen A, Strøm O, Søiland K, et al. One year’s treatment with propranolol after myocardial infarction: preliminary report of Norwegian multicentre trial. BMJ 1982;284:155-60



Olsson G, Rehnqvist N, Sjögren A, Erhardt L, Lundman T. Long-term treatment with metoprolol after myocardial infarction: effect on 3 year mortality and morbidity. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985;5:1428-37



Australian and Swedish Pindolol Study Group. The effect of pindolol on the two years mortality after complicated myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1983;4:367-5



Julian DG, Prescott RJ, Jackson FS, Szekely P. Controlled trial of sotalol for one year after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1982;1:1142-7



Wilhelmsson C, Vedin JA, Wilhelmsen L, Tibblin G, Werkö. Reduction of sudden deaths after myocardial infarction by treatment with alprenolol. Lancet 1974;2:1157-9



Baber NS, Evans DW, Howitt G, Thomas M, Wilson C, Lewis JA, et al. Multicentre post-infarction trial of propranolol in 49 hospitals in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Yugoslavia. Br Heart J 1980;44:96-100



Barber JM, Boyle DM, Chaturvedi NC, Singh N, Walsh MJ. Practolol in acute myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 1976;587:213-9



Manger Cats V, van Capelle FJL, Lie KI, Durrer D. Effect of treatment with metoprolol on first-year mortality in a single-centre study with low placebo mortality rate after myocardial infarction. Drugs 1985;29(suppl1):8



Andersen MP, Bechsgaard P, Frederiksen J, Hansen DA, Jürgensen HJ, Nielsen B, et al. Effect of alprenolol on mortality among patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1979;2:865-8



Hansen DA, Jürgensen HJ, Pedersen-Bjergaard O. Effect of acute and long term-beta-andrenergic blockade with alprenolol in definite or suspected myocardial infarction. Causes of death and post-mortem findings with special reference to early deaths. Acta Med Scand 1984;suppl 680:50-8



Lopressor Intervention Trial (LIT) Research Group. The Lopressor Intervention Trial: multicentre study of metoprolol in survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1987;8:1056-64



Ahlmark G, Saetre H, Korsgren M. Reduction of sudden deaths after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1974;2:1563



Mazur NA, Kulginskaya IV, Ivanova LA, Ostrov -Skaya TP, Smirnova TM, Svet EA, et al. Results of long-term propranolol treatment in myocardial infarction survivors with advanced grades of ventricular extrasystoles. Cor Vasa 1984;26:241-7



Salathia KS, Barber JM, McIlmoyle EL, Nicholas J, Evans AE, Elwood JH, et al. Very early intervention with metoprolol in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1985;6:190-8



Torp-Pedersen C, Køber L, Ball S, Hall A, Brendorp B, Ottesen MM, et al. The incomplete Bucindolol Evaluation in Acute myocardial infarction Trial (BEAT). Eur J Heart Fail 2002;4:495-9



Boissel J-P, Leizorovicz A, Picolet H, Peyrieux J-C for the APSI (Acebutolol et Prévention Secondaire de l’Infarctus) Investigators. Secondary prevention after high-risk acute myocardial infarction with low-dose acebutolol. Am J Cardiol 1990;66:251-60



Basu S, Senior R, Raval U, van der Does R, Bruckner T, Lahiri A. Benefical effects of intravenous and oral carvedilol treatment in acute myocardial infarction: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Circulation 1997;96:183-91



Navarro-Lopez F, Cosin J, Marrugat J, Guindo J, Bayes de Luna A for the SSSD (Spanish Study on Sudden Death) Investigators. Comparison of the effects of amiodarone versus metoprolol on the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias and on mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:1243-8



Reynolds JL, Whitlock RML. Effects of a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker in myocardial infarction treated for one year from onset. Br Heart J 1972;34:252-9



Kaul UA, Verma R, Garg KC. Early intervention with propranolol after acute myocardial infarction: serial left ventricular function determined by m-mode and cross-sectional echocardiography. Int J Cardiol 1988 Dec;21(3):301-10.



Taylor SH, Silke B, Ebbutt A, Sutton GC, Prout BJ, Burley DM. A long-term prevention study with oxprenolol in coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1982;307:1293-1301



The MACB (Metoprolol after Coronary Bypass) Study Group. Effect of metoprolol on death and cardiac events during a 2-year period after coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur Heart J 1995;16:1825-32



Dargie HJ, Ford I, Fox KM on behalf of the TIBET (Total Ischaemic Burden European Trial) study group. Effects of ischaemia and treatment with atenolol, nifedipine SR and their combination on outcome in patients with chronic stable angina. Eur Heart J 1996;17:104-12



Poldermans D, Boersma E, Bax JJ, Thomson IR, Paelinck B, van de Ven LLM, Scheffer MG, et al for the Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography (DECREASE) Study Group. Bisoprolol reduces cardiac death in myocardial infarction in high-risk patients as long as 2 years after successful major vascular surgery. Eur Heart J 2001;22:1353-8



Pepine CJ, Cohn PF, Deedwania PC, Gibson RS, Handberg E, Hill JA, et al for the ASIST Study Group. Effects of treatment on outcome in mildly symptomatic patients with ischemia during daily life. The Atenolol Silent Ischemia Study (ASIST). Circulation 1994;90:762-8



Hjalmarson A, Goldstein S, Fagerberg B, Wedel H, Waagstein F, Kjekshus J, et al for the MERIT-HF Study Group. Effects of controlled-release metoprolol on mortality, hospitalizations, and well-being in patients with heart failure. The Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). JAMA 2000;283:1295-1302



The Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) Investigators. A trial of the beta-blocker Bucindolol in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1659-67



Packer M, Fowler BM, Roecker EB, Coats AJS, Hatus HA, Drum H, et al for the COPERNICUS Study Group. Effect of carvedilol on the morbidity of patients with severe chronic heart failure: results of the Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) study. Circulation 2002:106:2194-9



CIBIS-II Investigators and Committees. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353:9-13



Australia/New Zealand Heart Failure Research Collaborative Group (ANZHFRCG). Randomised, placebo-controlled trial of carvedilol in patients with congestive heart failure due to ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1997;349:375-80



Aronow WS, Ahn C, Kronzon I. Effect of propranolol versus no propranolol on total mortality plus nonfatal myocardial infarction in older patients.Am J Cardiol 1997;80:207-9



Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moyé LA, Basta L, Brown EJ, Cuddy TE, et al for the SAVE Investigators. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the Survival and Ventricular Enhancement (SAVE) Trial. N Engl J Med 1992;327:669-77



Køber L, Torp-Pedersen C, Carlsen JE, Bagger H, Eliasen P, Lyngborg K, et al for the Trandolapril Cardiac Enlargement (TRACE) Study Group. A clinical trial of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor trandolapril in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1670-6



Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy (AIRE) Study Investigators. Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity of survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. Lancet 1993;342:821-8



Cleland JGF, Erhardt L, Murray G, Hall AS, Ball SG on behalf of the AIRE Study Investigators. Effect of ramipril on morbidity and mode of death among survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. Eur Heart J 1997;18:41-51



Ueshima K, Fukami K, Hiramori K, Hosoda S, Kishida H, Kato K, et al for the Japanese Acute Myocardial Infarction Prospective (JAMP) Study Group. Is angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor useful in a Japanese population for secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction? A final report of the JAMP study. Am Heart J 2004;148:e8



van Gilst WH, Kingma JH, Peels KH, Dambrink J-HE, Sutton MSJ for the CATS Investigators. Which patient benefits from early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition after myocardial infarction? Results of one-year serial echocardiographic follow-up from the Capropril and Thrombolysis Study (CATS). J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:114-21



Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145-53



The EURopean trial On reduction of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery  disease (EUROPA) investigators. Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised. double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet 2003;362:782-8



The PEACE (Prevention of Events with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition) Trial Investigators. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition in stable coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2058-68



Pitt B, O’Neill B, Geldman R, Ferrari R, Schwartz L, Mudra H, et al for the QUIET Study Group. The Quinapril Ischemic Event Trial (QUIET): evaluation of chronic ACE inhibitor therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease and preserved left ventricular function. Am J Cardiol 2001;87:1058-63



MacMahon S, Sharpe N, Gamble G, Clague A, Mhurchu CN, Clark T, et al for the Part-2 (Prevention of Atherosclerosis with Ramipril Trial) Collaborative Research Group. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in patients with coronary or other occlusive arterial disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:438-43



Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Libby P, Thompson PD, Ghali M, Garza D, et al for the CAMELOT (Comparison of Amlodipine vs Enalapril to Limit Occurences of Thrombosis) Investigators. Effect of antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure. The CAMELOT Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;292:2217-26



Faxon DP for the Multicentre American Research Trial with Cilizapril after Angioplasty to Prevent Transluminal Coronary Obstruction and Restenosis (MARCATOR) Study Group. Effect of high dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on restenosis: final results of the MARCARTOR study, a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cilazapril. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;2:362-9



Teo KK, Burton JR, Buller CE, Plante S, Catellier D, Tymchak W, et al for the SCAT Investigators. Long-term effects of cholesterol lowering and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on coronary atherosclerosis: the Simvastatin/Enalapril Coronary Atherosclerosis Trial (SCAT). Circulation 2000;102:1748-54



The Multicenter European Research Trial With Cilazapril After Angioplasty to Prevent Transluminal Coronary Obstruction and Restenosis (MERCATOR) Study Group. Does the new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty? Circulation 1992;86:100-10



Kjøller-Hansen L, Steffensen R, Grande P. The Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition Post Revascularization Study (APRES). J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:881-8



SOLVD (Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction) Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J Med 1992;327:685-91



SOLVD (Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction) Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325:293-302



Flather MD, Yusuf S, Køber L, Pfeffer M, Hall A, Murray G, et al. Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. Lancet 2000;355:1575-81



Kondo J, Sone T, Tsuboi H, Mukawa H, Morishima I, Uesugi M, et al. Effects of low-dose angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am Heart J 2003;146:e20



McMurray JJV, Őstergren J, Swedberg K, Granger CB, Held P, Michelson EL, et al for the CHARM Investigators and Committees. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Added trial. Lancet 2003;362:767-71



Granger CB, McMurray JJV, Yusuf S, Held P, Michelson EL, Olofsson B, et al for the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart failure Asessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity) Investigators and Committees. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Alternative trial. Lancet 2003;362:772-6



Yusuf S, Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K, Granger CB, Held P, McMurray JJV, et al for the CHARM Investigators and Committees. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and presereved left-ventricular ejection fraction: the CHARM-Preserved Trial. Lancet 2003;362:777-81



Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction. Effect of verapamil on mortality and major events after acute myocardial infarction: the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II (DAVIT II). Am J Cardiol 1990;66:779-85



Multicenter Diltiazem Postinfarction Trial (MDPT) Research Group. The effect of diltiazem on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1988;319:385-92



Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction. Verapamil in acute myocardial infarction: the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial (DAVIT). Eur Heart J 1984;5:516-28



The Israeli Sprint Study Group. Secondary prevention reinfarction Israeli nifedipine trial (SPRINT). A randomized intervention trial of nifedipine in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1988;9:354-64



Rengo F, Carbonin P, Pahor M, De Caprio L, Bernabei R, Ferrara N, et al and the CRIS Investigators. A controlled trial of verapamil in patients after acute myocardial infarction: results of the Calcium Antagonist Reinfarction Italian study (CRIS). Am J Cardiol 1996;77:365-9



Goldbourt U, Behar S, Reicher-Reiss H, Zion M, Mandelzweig L, Kaplinsky E for the SPRINT Study Group. Early administration of nifedipine in suspected myocardial infarction: the Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israel Nifedipine Trial 2 (SPRINT 2) Study. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:345-53



Boden WE, van Gilst WH, Scheidewaert RG, Starkey IR, Carlier MF, Julian DG, et al for the Incomplete Infarction Trial of European Research Collaborators Evaluting Prognosis post-Thrombosis (INTERCEPT). Diltiazem in acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:1751-6



DEFIANT-II (Doppler Flow an Echocardiography in Functional Cardiac Insufficiency Assessment of Nisoldipine Therapy) Research Group. Doppler flow and echocardiography in functional cardiac insufficiency: assessment of nisoldipine therapy. Eur Heart J 1997;18:31-40



Poole-Wilson PA, Lubsen J, Kirwan B-A, van Dalen FJ, Wagener G, Danchin N, et al for the ACTION (A Coronary disease Trial Investigation Outcome with Nifedipine gastroinestinal therapeutic system) Investigators. Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with stable angina requiring treatment (ACTION trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364:849-57



Pitt B, Byington RP, Furberg CD, Hunninghake DB, Mancini J, Miller ME, et al for the PREVENT (Prospective Randomised Evaluation of the Vascular Effects of Norvasc Trial) Investigators. Effect of amlodipine on the progression of atherosclerosis and the occurrence of clinical events. Circulation 2000;102:1503-10



Dens JA, Desmet WJ, Coussement P, De Scheerder IK, Kostopoulos K, Kerdsinchai P, et al. Long term effects of nisoldipine on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and the occurrence of clinical events: the NICOLE (Nisoldipine in coronary artery disease in Leuven) study. Heart 2003;89:887-92



Lichtlen PR, Hugenholtz PG, Rafflenbeul W, Hecker H, Jost S, Nikutta P, et al for the INTACT group investigators. Retardation of coronary artery disease in humans by the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine: results of the INTACT study (International Nifedipine Trial on Antiatherosclerotic Therapy). Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1990;4:1047-68



Lichtlen PR, Hugenholtz PG, Rafflenbeul W, Hecker H, Jost S, Deckers JW. Retardation of angiographic progression of coronary artery disease by nifedipine. Lancet 1990;335:1109-13



Jørgensen B, Simonsen S, Endresen K, Forfang K, Vatne K, Hansen J, et al. Restenosis and clinical outcome in patients treated with amlodipine after angioplasty: results from the Coronary AngioPlasty Amlodipine REStenosis Study (CAPARES). J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:592-9



Besterhorn H-P, Neumann F-J, Bűttner HJ, Betz P, Stűrzenhofecker P, von Hodenberg E, Verdun A, et al. Evaluation of the effect of oral verapamil on clinical outcome and angiographic restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. The Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Verapamil Slow-Release for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events After Angioplasty (VESPA) Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004:43:2160-5



Levine TB, Bernink PJLM, Caspi A, Elayam U, Geltman EM, Greenberg B, et al. Effect of mibefradil, a t-type calcium-channel blocker, on morbidity and mortality in moderate to severe congestive heart failure. The MACH-1 (Mortality Assessment in Congestive Heart Failure) study. Circulation 2000;101:758-64



Packer M, O’Connor CM, Ghali JK, Pressler ML, Carson PE, Belkin RN, et al for the Prospective Randomised Amlodipine Survival Evaluation (PRAISE) Study Group. Effect of amlodipine on morbidity and mortality in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1107-14



PATS Collaborating Group. Post-stroke Antihypertensive Treatment Study (PATS). Chin Med J 1995;108:710-17



Eriksson S, Olofsson B-O, Wester P-O for the TEST (TEnormin after Stroke and TIA) study group. Atenolol in secondary prevention after stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 1995;5:21-5



The Dutch TIA Trial Study Group. Trial of secondary prevention with atenolol after transient ischemic attack or nondisabling ischemic stroke. Stroke 1993;24:543-8



Hedblad B, Wikstrand J, Janzon L, Wedel H, Berglund G. Low-dose metoprolol CR/XL and fluvastatin slow progression of carotid intima-media thickness. Main results from the b-Blocker Cholesterol-Lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS). Circulation 2001;103:1721-6



Pantoni L, Bianchi C, Beneke M, Inzitari D, Wallin A, Erkinjuntti T. The Scandinavian Multi-Infarct Dementia Trial (SMIDT): a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on nimodipine in multi-infarct dementia. J Neurol Sci 2000;175:116-23



PROGRESS (Perindopril protection against recurrent stroke study) Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2001;358:1033-41



PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Effects of a perindopril-based blood pressure lowering regimen on cardiac outcomes among patients with cerebrovascular disease. Eur Heart J 2003;24:475-84



Hypertension-Stroke Cooperative Study (HSCS) Group. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on stroke recurrence. JAMA 1974;229:409-18



Carter AB. Hypotensive therapy in stroke survivors. Lancet 1970;1:485-89



Wilhelmsen L, Berglund G, Elmfeldt D, Fitzsimons T, Holsgreve H, Hosie J on behalf of the Heart Attack Primary Prevention in Hypertension (HAPPY) Trial Research Group. Beta-blockers versus diuretics in hypertensive men: main results from the HAPPHY trial. J Hypertens 1987;5:561-72



Wikstrand J, Warnold I, Tuomilehto J, Olsson G, Barber HJ, Eliasson K, et al. Metoprolol versus thiazide diuretics in hypertension: morbidity results from the MAPHY study. Hypertension 1991;17:579-88



Yurenev AP, Dyakonova HG, Novikov ID, Vitols A, Pahl L, Haynemann G, et al. Management of essential hypertension in patients with different degrees of left ventricular hypertrophy: multicentre trial. Am J Hypertens 1992;5:182S-189S



Veterans Administration Cooperative (VACoop) Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Comparison of propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide for the initial treatment of hypertension: II Results of long-term therapy. JAMA 1982;248:2004-11



Wing LMH, Reid CM, Ryan P, Beilin LJ, Brown MA, Jennings GLR, et al for the second Australian national blood pressure study group. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. N Eng J Med 2003;348:583-92



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