Skip to main content
School of Biological and Chemical Sciences

Christoforos Efstathiou


PhD student



Project title: Developing Tools for live-cell imaging in the millisecond regime using Electrically Tunable Lenses

Summary: The investigation of dynamic biological processes like cell division, and specifically mitotic spindle movements, require high-speed imaging techniques. Conventional microscope systems for live-imaging in 3D are fundamentally restricted in their spatial-temporal resolution. The highly innovative Electrically Tunable Lens (ETL) technology can overcome the spatial-temporal limitations due to its core shape-changing principles. Accordingly, the ETL enables precise high-throughput image acquisition within the millisecond regime in 3D. ETL microscopy data will be acquired for photosensitive models: dividing human cell and worm embryo (both allow 3D-imaging) to allow general application of the tool in multiple model systems. ETLs introduce aberrations and to resolve these machine/deep learning methods will be developed. The methods will allow consistent automated analysis of the large volume of data generated.

This BBSRC-funded LIDo iCASE ( project is a collaboration between Prof Viji Draviam's group and IMSOL ( for implementing the ETL technology in all wide-field light microscopes capable of fluorescent live-cell imaging.