Enzyme Nomenclature. Recommendations 1992

Continued from EC 3.4.22.1 to EC 3.4.22.50


EC 3.4.22

EC 3.4.22 Cysteine endopeptidases

Contents

EC 3.4.22.51 cruzipain
EC 3.4.22.52 calpain-1
EC 3.4.22.53 calpain-2
EC 3.4.22.54 calpain-3
EC 3.4.22.55 caspase-2
EC 3.4.22.56 caspase-3
EC 3.4.22.57 caspase-4
EC 3.4.22.58 caspase-5
EC 3.4.22.59 caspase-6
EC 3.4.22.60 caspase-7
EC 3.4.22.61 caspase-8
EC 3.4.22.62 caspase-9
EC 3.4.22.63 caspase-10
EC 3.4.22.64 caspase-11
EC 3.4.22.65 peptidase 1 (mite)
EC 3.4.22.66 calicivirin
EC 3.4.22.67 zingipain
EC 3.4.22.68 Ulp1 peptidase
EC 3.4.22.69 SARS coronavirus main proteinase
EC 3.4.22.70 sortase A
EC 3.4.22.71 sortase B

Entries

EC 3.4.22.51

Accepted name: cruzipain

Reaction: Broad endopeptidase specificity similar to that of cathepsin L

Other name(s): congopain; cruzain; evansain; trypanopain

Comments: In peptidase family C1. Is located in the digestive vacuoles of the parasitic trypanosome and contributes to the nutrition of the organism by digestion of host proteins.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 141588-22-9

References:

1. Cazzulo, J.J., Stoka, V. and Turk, V. The major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi: a valid target for chemotherapy of Chagas disease. Curr. Pharm. Des. 7 (2001) 1143-1156. [PMID: 11472258]

[E 3.4.23.51 created 2003]

EC 3.4.22.52

Accepted name: calpain-1

Reaction: Broad endopeptidase specificity

Other name(s): μ-calpain; calcium-activated neutral protease I

Comments: In peptidase family C2. Requires Ca2+ at micromolar concentrations for activity. Cytosolic in animal cells. The active enzyme molecule is a heterodimer in which the large subunit contains the peptidase unit, and the small subunit is also a component of EC 3.4.22.53, calpain-2.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 78990-62-2

References:

1. Dutt, P., Spriggs, C.N., Davies, P.L., Jia, Z. and Elce, J.S. Origins of the difference in Ca2+ requirement for activation of μ- and m-calpain. Biochem. J. 367 (2002) 263-269. [PMID: 12014988]

[EC 3.4.22.52 created 1981 as EC 3.4.22.17, transferred 2003 to EC 3.4.22.52]

EC 3.4.22.53

Accepted name: calpain-2

Reaction: Broad endopeptidase specificity

Other name(s): calcium-activated neutral protease II; m-calpain; milli-calpain

Comments: Type example of peptidase family C2. Requires Ca2+ at millimolar concentrations for activity. Cytosolic in animal cells. The active enzyme molecule is a heterodimer in which the large subunit contains the peptidase unit, and the small subunit is also a component of EC 3.4.22.52, calpain-1.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 702693-80-9

References:

1. Strobl, S., Fernandez-Catalan, C., Braun, M., Huber, R., Masumoto, H., Nakagawa, K., Irie, A., Sorimachi, H., Bourenkow, G., Bartunik, H., Suzuki, K. and Bode, W. The crystal structure of calcium-free human m-calpain suggests an electrostatic switch mechanism for activation by calcium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 588-592. [PMID: 10639123]

2. Dutt, P., Spriggs, C.N., Davies, P.L., Jia, Z. and Elce, J.S. Origins of the difference in Ca2+ requirement for activation of μ- and m-calpain. Biochem. J. 367 (2002) 263-269. [PMID: 12014988]

[EC 3.4.23.53 created 1981 as EC 3.4.22.17, transferred 2003 to EC 3.4.22.53]

EC 3.4.22.54

Accepted name: calpain-3

Reaction: Broad endopeptidase activity

Other name(s): p94; calpain p94; CAPN3; muscle calpain; calpain 3; calcium-activated neutral proteinase 3; muscle-specific calcium-activated neutral protease 3; CANP 3; calpain L3

Comments: This Ca2+-dependent enzyme is found in skeletal muscle and is genetically linked to limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A [1,4]. The enzyme is activated by autoproteolytic cleavage of insertion sequence 1 (IS1), which allows substrates and inhibitors gain access to the active site [4]. Substrates include the protein itself [3,4] and connectin/titin [2,5]. Belongs in peptidase family C2.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Sorimachi, H., Imajoh-Ohmi, S., Emori, Y., Kawasaki, H., Ohno, S., Minami, Y. and Suzuki, K. Molecular cloning of a novel mammalian calcium-dependent protease distinct from both m- and μ-types. Specific expression of the mRNA in skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 20106-20111. [PMID: 2555341]

2. Sorimachi, H., Kinbara, K., Kimura, S., Takahashi, M., Ishiura, S., Sasagawa, N., Sorimachi, N., Shimada, H., Tagawa, K., Maruyama, K. and Suzuki, K. Muscle-specific calpain, p94, responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, associates with connectin through IS2, a p94-specific sequence. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 31158-31162. [PMID: 8537379]

3. Rey, M.A. and Davies, P.L. The protease core of the muscle-specific calpain, p94, undergoes Ca2+-dependent intramolecular autolysis. FEBS Lett. 532 (2002) 401-406. [PMID: 12482600]

4. García Díaz, B.E., Gauthier, S. and Davies, P.L. Ca2+ dependency of calpain 3 (p94) activation. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 3714-3722. [PMID: 16533054]

5. Ono, Y., Torii, F., Ojima, K., Doi, N., Yoshioka, K., Kawabata, Y., Labeit, D., Labeit, S., Suzuki, K., Abe, K., Maeda, T. and Sorimachi, H. Suppressed disassembly of autolyzing p94/CAPN3 by N2A connectin/titin in a genetic reporter system. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 18519-18531. [PMID: 16627476]

[EC 3.4.22.54 created 2007]

EC 3.4.22.55

Accepted name: caspase-2

Reaction: Strict requirement for an Asp residue at P1, with Asp316 being essential for proteolytic activity and has a preferred cleavage sequence of Val-Asp-Val-Ala-Asp

Other name(s): ICH-1; NEDD-2; caspase-2L; caspase-2S; neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 2; CASP-2; NEDD2 protein

Comments: Caspase-2 is an initiator caspase, as are caspase-8 (EC 3.4.22.61), caspase-9 (EC 3.4.22.62) and caspase-10 (EC 3.4.22.64) [6]. Contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) in its N-terminal prodomain, which plays a role in procaspase activation [6]. Two forms of caspase-2 with antagonistic effects exist: caspase-2L induces programmed cell death and caspase-2S suppresses cell death [2,3,5]. Caspase-2 is activated by caspase-3 (EC 3.4.22.56), or by a caspase-3-like protease. Activation involves cleavage of the N-terminal prodomain, followed by self-proteolysis between the large and small subunits of pro-caspase-2 and further proteolysis into smaller fragments [3]. Proteolysis occurs at Asp residues and the preferred substrate for this enzyme is a pentapeptide rather than a tetrapeptide [5]. Apart from itself, the enzyme can cleave golgin-16, which is present in the Golgi complex and has a cleavage site that is unique for caspase-2 [4,5]. αII-Spectrin, a component of the membrane cytoskeleton, is a substrate of the large isoform of pro-caspase-2 (caspase-2L) but not of the short isoform (caspase-2S). Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 182372-14-1

References:

1. Kumar, S., Kinoshita, M., Noda, M., Copeland, N.G. and Jenkins, N.A. Induction of apoptosis by the mouse Nedd2 gene, which encodes a protein similar to the product of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell death gene ced-3 and the mammalian IL-1β-converting enzyme. Genes Dev. 8 (1994) 1613-1626. [PMID: 7958843]

2. Wang, L., Miura, M., Bergeron, L., Zhu, H. and Yuan, J. Ich-1, an Ice/ced-3-related gene, encodes both positive and negative regulators of programmed cell death. Cell 78 (1994) 739-750. [PMID: 8087842]

3. Li, H., Bergeron, L., Cryns, V., Pasternack, M.S., Zhu, H., Shi, L., Greenberg, A. and Yuan, J. Activation of caspase-2 in apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 21010-21017. [PMID: 9261102]

4. Mancini, M., Machamer, C.E., Roy, S., Nicholson, D.W., Thornberry, N.A., Casciola-Rosen, L.A. and Rosen, A. Caspase-2 is localized at the Golgi complex and cleaves golgin-160 during apoptosis. J. Cell Biol. 149 (2000) 603-612. [PMID: 10791974]

5. Zhivotovsky, B. and Orrenius, S. Caspase-2 function in response to DNA damage. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 331 (2005) 859-867. [PMID: 15865942]

6. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

[EC 3.4.22.55 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.56

Accepted name: caspase-3

Reaction: Strict requirement for an Asp residue at positions P1 and P4. It has a preferred cleavage sequence of Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Asp with a hydrophobic amino-acid residue at P2 and a hydrophilic amino-acid residue at P3, although Val or Ala are also accepted at this position

Other name(s): CPP32; apopain; yama protein

Comments: Caspase-3 is an effector/executioner caspase, as are caspase-6 (EC 3.4.22.59) and caspase-7 (EC 3.4.22.60) [5]. These caspases are responsible for the proteolysis of the majority of cellular polypeptides [e.g. poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)], which leads to the apoptotic phenotype [3,5]. Procaspase-3 can be activated by caspase-1 (EC 3.4.22.36), caspase-8 (EC 3.4.22.61), caspase-9 (EC 3.4.22.62) and caspase-10 (EC 3.4.22.63) as well as by the serine protease granzyme B [1]. Caspase-3 can activate procaspase-2 (EC 3.4.22.55) [2]. Activation occurs by inter-domain cleavage followed by removal of the N-terminal prodomain [6]. Although Asp-Glu-(Val/Ile)-Asp is thought to be the preferred cleavage sequence, the enzyme can accommodate different residues at P2 and P3 of the substrate [4]. Like caspase-2, a hydrophobic residue at P5 of caspase-3 leads to more efficient hydrolysis, e.g. (Val/Leu)-Asp-Val-Ala-Asp is a better substrate than Asp-Val-Ala-Asp . This is not the case for caspase-7 [4]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 169592-56-7

References:

1. Krebs, J.F., Srinivasan, A., Wong, A.M., Tomaselli, K.J., Fritz, L.C. and Wu, J.C. Heavy membrane-associated caspase 3: identification, isolation, and characterization. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 16056-16063. [PMID: 11123933]

2. Li, H., Bergeron, L., Cryns, V., Pasternack, M.S., Zhu, H., Shi, L., Greenberg, A. and Yuan, J. Activation of caspase-2 in apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 21010-21017. [PMID: 9261102]

3. Nicholson, D. and Thornberry, N.A. Caspase-3 and caspase-7. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1298-1302.

4. Fang, B., Boross, P.I., Tozser, J. and Weber, I.T. Structural and kinetic analysis of caspase-3 reveals role for S5 binding site in substrate recognition. J. Mol. Biol. 360 (2006) 654-666. [PMID: 16781734]

5. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

6. Martin, S.J., Amarante-Mendes, G.P., Shi, L., Chuang, T.H., Casiano, C.A., O'Brien, G.A., Fitzgerald, P., Tan, E.M., Bokoch, G.M., Greenberg, A.H. and Green, D.R. The cytotoxic cell protease granzyme B initiates apoptosis in a cell-free system by proteolytic processing and activation of the ICE/CED-3 family protease, CPP32, via a novel two-step mechanism. EMBO J. 15 (1996) 2407-2416. [PMID: 8665848]

[EC 3.4.22.56 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.57

Accepted name: caspase-4

Reaction: Strict requirement for Asp at the P1 position. It has a preferred cleavage sequence of Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp but also cleaves at Asp-Glu-Val-Asp

Other name(s): ICErelII; ICErel-II; Ich-2; transcript X; TX; TX protease; caspase 4; CASP-4

Comments: This enzyme is part of the family of inflammatory caspases, which also includes caspase-1 (EC 3.4.22.36) and caspase-5 ( EC 3.4.22.58) in humans and caspase-11 (EC 3.4.22.64), caspase-12, caspase-13 and caspase-14 in mice. Contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) in its N-terminal prodomain, which plays a role in procaspase activation [3,5,6]. The enzyme is able to cleave itself and the p30 caspase-1 precursor, but, unlike caspase-1, it is very inefficient at generating mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from pro-IL-1β [1,4]. Both this enzyme and caspase-5 can cleave pro-caspase-3 to release the small subunit (p12) but not the large subunit (p17) [3]. The caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO can also inhibit this enzyme, but more slowly [4]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 182762-08-9

References:

1. Faucheu, C., Diu, A., Chan, A.W., Blanchet, A.M., Miossec, C., Hervé, F., Collard-Dutilleul, V., Gu, Y., Aldape, R.A., Lippke, J.A., Rocher, C., Su, M.S.-S., Livingston, D.J., Hercend, T. and Lalanne, J.-L. A novel human protease similar to the interleukin-1β converting enzyme induces apoptosis in transfected cells. EMBO J. 14 (1995) 1914-1922. [PMID: 7743998]

2. Kamens, J., Paskind, M., Hugunin, M., Talanian, R.V., Allen, H., Banach, D., Bump, N., Hackett, M., Johnston, C.G., Li, P., Mankovich, J.A., Terranova, M. and Ghayur, T. Identification and characterization of ICH-2, a novel member of the interleukin-1β-converting enzyme family of cysteine proteases. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 15250-15256. [PMID: 7797510]

3. Kamada, S., Funahashi, Y. and Tsujimoto, Y. Caspase-4 and caspase-5, members of the ICE/CED-3 family of cysteine proteases, are CrmA-inhibitable proteases. Cell Death Differ. 4 (1997) 473-478. [PMID: 16465268]

4. Fassy, F., Krebs, O., Rey, H., Komara, B., Gillard, C., Capdevila, C., Yea, C., Faucheu, C., Blanchet, A.M., Miossec, C. and Diu-Hercend, A. Enzymatic activity of two caspases related to interleukin-1β-converting enzyme. Eur. J. Biochem. 253 (1998) 76-83. [PMID: 9578463]

5. Martinon, F. and Tschopp, J. Inflammatory caspases: linking an intracellular innate immune system to autoinflammatory diseases. Cell 117 (2004) 561-574. [PMID: 15163405]

6. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

[EC 3.4.22.57 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.58

Accepted name: caspase-5

Reaction: Strict requirement for Asp at the P1 position. It has a preferred cleavage sequence of Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp but also cleaves at Asp-Glu-Val-Asp

Other name(s): ICErel-III; Ich-3; ICH-3 protease; transcript Y; TY; CASP-5

Comments: This enzyme is part of the family of inflammatory caspases, which also includes caspase-1 (EC 3.4.22.36) and caspase-4 (EC 3.4.22.57) in humans and caspase-11 (EC 3.4.22.64), caspase-12, caspase-13 and caspase-14 in mice. Contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) in its N-terminal prodomain, which plays a role in procaspase activation [3,5,6]. The enzyme is able to cleave itself and the p30 caspase-1 precursor, but is very inefficient at generating mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from pro-IL-1β [1,4]. Both this enzyme and caspase-4 can cleave pro-caspase-3 to release the small subunit (p12) but not the large subunit (p17) [3]. Unlike caspase-4, this enzyme can be induced by lipopolysaccharide [3]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 192465-11-5

References:

1. Faucheu, C., Blanchet, A.M., Collard-Dutilleul, V., Lalanne, J.L. and Diu-Hercend, A. Identification of a cysteine protease closely related to interleukin-1 β-converting enzyme. Eur. J. Biochem. 236 (1996) 207-213. [PMID: 8617266]

2. Kamada, S., Funahashi, Y. and Tsujimoto, Y. Caspase-4 and caspase-5, members of the ICE/CED-3 family of cysteine proteases, are CrmA-inhibitable proteases. Cell Death Differ. 4 (1997) 473-478. [PMID: 16465268]

3. Lin, X.Y., Choi, M.S. and Porter, A.G. Expression analysis of the human caspase-1 subfamily reveals specific regulation of the CASP5 gene by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 39920-39926. [PMID: 10986288]

4. Fassy, F., Krebs, O., Rey, H., Komara, B., Gillard, C., Capdevila, C., Yea, C., Faucheu, C., Blanchet, A.M., Miossec, C. and Diu-Hercend, A. Enzymatic activity of two caspases related to interleukin-1β-converting enzyme. Eur. J. Biochem. 253 (1998) 76-83. [PMID: 9578463]

5. Martinon, F. and Tschopp, J. Inflammatory caspases: linking an intracellular innate immune system to autoinflammatory diseases. Cell 117 (2004) 561-574. [PMID: 15163405]

6. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

[EC 3.4.22.58 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.59

Accepted name: caspase-6

Reaction: Strict requirement for Asp at position P1 and has a preferred cleavage sequence of Val-Glu-His-Asp

Other name(s): CASP-6; apoptotic protease Mch-2; Mch2

Comments: Caspase-6 is an effector/executioner caspase, as are caspase-3 (EC 3.4.22.56) and caspase-7 (EC 3.4.22.60) [2]. These caspases are responsible for the proteolysis of the majority of cellular polypeptides [e.g. poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)], which leads to the apoptotic phenotype [2]. Caspase-6 can cleave its prodomain to produce mature caspase-6, which directly activates caspase-8 (EC 3.4.22.61) and leads to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. The release of cytochrome c is an essential component of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway [1]. The enzyme can also cleave and inactivate lamins, the intermediate filament scaffold proteins of the nuclear envelope, leading to nuclear fragmentation in the final phases of apoptosis [2,4,5,6]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 182372-15-2

References:

1. Cowling, V. and Downward, J. Caspase-6 is the direct activator of caspase-8 in the cytochrome c-induced apoptosis pathway: absolute requirement for removal of caspase-6 prodomain. Cell Death Differ. 9 (2002) 1046-1056. [PMID: 12232792]

2. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

3. Kang, B.H., Ko, E., Kwon, O.K. and Choi, K.Y. The structure of procaspase 6 is similar to that of active mature caspase 6. Biochem. J. 364 (2002) 629-634. [PMID: 12049625]

4. Lee, S.C., Chan, J., Clement, M.V. and Pervaiz, S. Functional proteomics of resveratrol-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis: caspase-6-mediated cleavage of lamin A is a major signaling loop. Proteomics 6 (2006) 2386-2394. [PMID: 16518869]

5. MacLachlan, T.K. and El-Deiry, W.S. Apoptotic threshold is lowered by p53 transactivation of caspase-6. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 9492-9497. [PMID: 12089322]

6. Takahashi, A., Alnemri, E.S., Lazebnik, Y.A., Fernandes-Alnemri, T., Litwack, G., Moir, R.D., Goldman, R.D., Poirier, G.G., Kaufmann, S.H. and Earnshaw, W.C. Cleavage of lamin A by Mch2α but not CPP32: multiple interleukin 1β-converting enzyme-related proteases with distinct substrate recognition properties are active in apoptosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 8395-8400. [PMID: 8710882]

[EC 3.4.22.59 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.60

Accepted name: caspase-7

Reaction: Strict requirement for an Asp residue at position P1 and has a preferred cleavage sequence of Asp-Glu-Val-Asp

Other name(s): CASP-7; ICE-like apoptotic protease 3; ICE-LAP3; apoptotic protease Mch-3; Mch3; CMH-1

Comments: Caspase-7 is an effector/executioner caspase, as are caspase-3 (EC 3.4.22.56) and caspase-6 (EC 3.4.22.59) [1]. These caspases are responsible for the proteolysis of the majority of cellular polypeptides [e.g. poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)], which leads to the apoptotic phenotype [2]. Although a hydrophobic residue at P5 of caspase-2 (EC 3.4.22.55) and caspase-3 leads to more efficient hydrolysis, the amino-acid residue at this location in caspase-7 has no effect [3]. Caspase-7 is activated by the initiator caspases [caspase-8 (EC 3.4.22.61), caspase-9 (EC 3.4.22.62) and caspase-10 (EC 3.4.22.63)]. Removal of the N-terminal prodomain occurs before cleavage in the linker region between the large and small subunits [4]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 189258-14-8

References:

1. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

2. Nicholson, D. and Thornberry, N.A. Caspase-3 and caspase-7. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1298-1302.

3. Fang, B., Boross, P.I., Tozser, J. and Weber, I.T. Structural and kinetic analysis of caspase-3 reveals role for S5 binding site in substrate recognition. J. Mol. Biol. 360 (2006) 654-666. [PMID: 16781734]

4. Denault, J.B. and Salvesen, G.S. Human caspase-7 activity and regulation by its N-terminal peptide. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 34042-34050. [PMID: 12824163]

[EC 3.4.22.60 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.61

Accepted name: caspase-8

Reaction: Strict requirement for Asp at position P1 and has a preferred cleavage sequence of (Leu/Asp/Val)-Glu-Thr-Asp(Gly/Ser/Ala)

Other name(s): FLICE, FADD-like ICE; MACH; MORT1-associated CED-3 homolog; Mch5; mammalian Ced-3 homolog 5; CASP-8; ICE-like apoptotic protease 5; FADD-homologous ICE/CED-3-like protease; apoptotic cysteine protease; apoptotic protease Mch-5; CAP4

Comments: Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase, as are caspase-2 (EC 3.4.22.55), caspase-9 (EC 3.4.22.62) and caspase-10 (EC 3.4.22.63) [1]. Caspase-8 is the apical activator of the extrinsic (death receptor) apoptosis pathway, triggered by death receptor ligation [2]. It contains two tandem death effector domains (DEDs) in its N-terminal prodomain, and these play a role in procaspase activation [1]. This enzyme is linked to cell surface death receptors such as Fas [1,5]. When Fas is aggregated by the Fas ligand, procaspase-8 is recruited to the death receptor where it is activated [1]. The enzyme has a preference for Glu at P3 and prefers small residues, such as Gly, Ser and Ala, at the P1′ position. It has very broad P4 specificity, tolerating substrates with Asp, Val or Leu in this position [2,3,4]. Endogenous substrates for caspase-8 include procaspase-3, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid, RIP, PAK2 and the caspase-8 activity modulator FLIPL [4,5]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 179241-78-2

References:

1. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

2. Boldin, M.P., Goncharov, T.M., Goltsev, Y.V. and Wallach, D. Involvement of MACH, a novel MORT1/FADD-interacting protease, in Fas/APO-1- and TNF receptor-induced cell death. Cell 85 (1996) 803-815. [PMID: 8681376]

3. Muzio, M., Chinnaiyan, A.M., Kischkel, F.C., O'Rourke, K., Shevchenko, A., Ni, J., Scaffidi, C., Bretz, J.D., Zhang, M., Gentz, R., Mann, M., Krammer, P.H., Peter, M.E. and Dixit, V.M. FLICE, a novel FADD-homologous ICE/CED-3-like protease, is recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex. Cell 85 (1996) 817-827. [PMID: 8681377]

4. Salvesen, G.S. and Boatright, K.M. Caspase-8. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1293-1296.

5. Fischer, U., Stroh, C. and Schulze-Osthoff, K. Unique and overlapping substrate specificities of caspase-8 and caspase-10. Oncogene 25 (2006) 152-159. [PMID: 16186808]

6. Blanchard, H., Donepudi, M., Tschopp, M., Kodandapani, L., Wu, J.C. and Grütter, M.G. Caspase-8 specificity probed at subsite S(4): crystal structure of the caspase-8-Z-DEVD-cho complex. J. Mol. Biol. 302 (2000) 9-16. [PMID: 10964557]

7. Boatright, K.M., Deis, C., Denault, J.B., Sutherlin, D.P. and Salvesen, G.S. Activation of caspases-8 and -10 by FLIPL. Biochem. J. 382 (2004) 651-657. [PMID: 15209560]

[EC 3.4.22.61 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.62

Accepted name: caspase-9

Reaction: Strict requirement for an Asp residue at position P1 and with a marked preference for His at position P2. It has a preferred cleavage sequence of Leu-Gly-His-AspXaa

Other name(s): CASP-9; ICE-like apoptotic protease 6; ICE-LAP6; apoptotic protease Mch-6; apoptotic protease-activating factor 3; APAF-3

Comments: Caspase-9 is an initiator caspase, as are caspase -2 (EC 3.4.22.55), caspase-8 (EC 3.4.22.61) and caspase-10 (EC 3.4.22.63) [1]. Caspase-9 contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) in its N-terminal prodomain, which plays a role in procaspase activation [1]. An alternatively spliced version of caspase-9 also exists, caspase-9S, that inhibits apoptosis, similar to the situation found with caspase-2 [1]. Phosphorylation of caspase-9 from some species by Akt, a serine-threonine protein kinase, inhibits caspase activity in vitro and caspase activation in vivo [1]. The activity of caspase-9 is increased dramatically upon association with the apoptosome but the enzyme can be activated without proteolytic cleavage [2,3]. Procaspase-3 is the enzyme's physiological substrate [2]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 180189-96-2

References:

1. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

2. Yin, Q., Park, H.H., Chung, J.Y., Lin, S.C., Lo, Y.C., da Graca, L.S., Jiang, X. and Wu, H. Caspase-9 holoenzyme is a specific and optimal procaspase-3 processing machine. Mol. Cell. 22 (2006) 259-268. [PMID: 16630893]

3. Boatright, K.M., Renatus, M., Scott, F.L., Sperandio, S., Shin, H., Pedersen, I.M., Ricci, J.E., Edris, W.A., Sutherlin, D.P., Green, D.R. and Salvesen, G.S. A unified model for apical caspase activation. Mol. Cell. 11 (2003) 529-541. [PMID: 12620239]

4. Salvesen, G.S. and Boatright, K.M. Caspase-9. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1296-1298.

[EC 3.4.22.62 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.63

Accepted name: caspase-10

Reaction: Strict requirement for Asp at position P1 and has a preferred cleavage sequence of Leu-Gln-Thr-AspGly

Other name(s): FLICE2, Mch4; CASP-10; ICE-like apoptotic protease 4; apoptotic protease Mch-4; FAS-associated death domain protein interleukin-1β-converting enzyme 2

Comments: Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase, as are caspase-2 (EC 3.4.22.44), caspase-8 (EC 3.4.22.61) and caspase-9 (EC 3.4.22.62) [1]. Like caspase-8, caspase-10 contains two tandem death effector domains (DEDs) in its N-terminal prodomain, and these play a role in procaspase activation [1]. The enzyme has many overlapping substrates in common with caspase-8, such as RIP (the cleavage of which impairs NF-κB survival signalling and starts the cell-death process) and PAK2 (associated with some of the morphological features of apoptosis, such as cell rounding and apoptotic body formation) [2]. Bid, a Bcl2 protein, can be cleaved by caspase-3 (EC 3.4.22.56), caspase-8 and caspase-10 at Lys-Gln-Thr-Asp to yield the pro-apoptotic p15 fragment. The p15 fragment is N-myristoylated and enhances the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria (which, in turn, initiatiates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway). Bid can be further cleaved by caspase-10 and granzyme B but not by caspase-3 or caspase-8 at Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp to yield a p13 fragment that is not N-myristoylated [2]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 189088-85-5

References:

1. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

2. Fischer, U., Stroh, C. and Schulze-Osthoff, K. Unique and overlapping substrate specificities of caspase-8 and caspase-10. Oncogene 25 (2006) 152-159. [PMID: 16186808]

3. Shikama, Y., Yamada, M. and Miyashita, T. Caspase-8 and caspase-10 activate NF-κB through RIP, NIK and IKKα kinases. Eur. J. Immunol. 33 (2003) 1998-2006. [PMID: 12884866]

4. Boatright, K.M., Deis, C., Denault, J.B., Sutherlin, D.P. and Salvesen, G.S. Activation of caspases-8 and -10 by FLIPL. Biochem. J. 382 (2004) 651-657. [PMID: 15209560]

[EC 3.4.22.63 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.64

Accepted name: caspase-11

Reaction: Strict requirement for Asp at the P1 position and has a preferred cleavage sequence of (Ile/Leu/Val/Phe)-Gly-His-Asp

Other name(s): CASP-11

Comments: This murine enzyme is part of the family of inflammatory caspases, which also includes caspase-1 (EC 3.4.22.36), caspase-4 (EC 3.4.22.57) and caspase-5 (EC 3.4.22.58) in humans and caspase-12, caspase-13 and caspase-14 in mice. Contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) in its N-terminal prodomain, which plays a role in procaspase activation. Like caspase-5, but unlike caspase-4, this enzyme can be induced by lipopolysaccharide [1]. This enzyme not only activates caspase-1, which is required for the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, but it also activates caspase-3 (EC 3.4.22.56), which leads to cellular apoptosis under pathological conditions [1,2]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Kang, S.J., Wang, S., Hara, H., Peterson, E.P., Namura, S., Amin-Hanjani, S., Huang, Z., Srinivasan, A., Tomaselli, K.J., Thornberry, N.A., Moskowitz, M.A. and Yuan, J. Dual role of caspase-11 in mediating activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3 under pathological conditions. J. Cell. Biol. 149 (2000) 613-622. [PMID: 10791975]

2. Hur, J., Kim, S.Y., Kim, H., Cha, S., Lee, M.S. and Suk, K. Induction of caspase-11 by inflammatory stimuli in rat astrocytes: lipopolysaccharide induction through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. FEBS Lett. 507 (2001) 157-162. [PMID: 11684090]

3. Wang, S., Miura, M., Jung, Y.K., Zhu, H., Li, E. and Yuan, J. Murine caspase-11, an ICE-interacting protease, is essential for the activation of ICE. Cell 92 (1998) 501-509. [PMID: 9491891]

4. Endo, M., Mori, M., Akira, S. and Gotoh, T. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is crucial for the induction of caspase-11 and the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. J. Immunol. 176 (2006) 6245-6253. [PMID: 16670335]

5. Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821-846. [PMID: 11104820]

[EC 3.4.22.64 created 2006]

EC 3.4.22.65

Accepted name: peptidase 1 (mite)

Reaction: Broad endopeptidase specificity

Other name(s): allergen Der f 1; allergen Der p 1; antigen Der p 1; antigen Eur m 1; antigen Pso o 1; major mite fecal allergen Der p 1; Der p 1; Der f 1; Eur m 1; endopeptidase 1 (mite)

Comments: This enzyme, derived from the house dust mite, is a major component of the allergic immune response [2]. The substrate specificity of this enzyme is not altogether clear. It cleaves the low-affinity IgE receptor CD23 at Glu298Ser299 and Ser155Ser156 [1]. It also cleaves the pulmonary structural proteins occludin and claudin at LeuLeu, AspLeu and at GlyThr bonds [1,2]. It can also cleave the α subunit of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (CD25) [4]. Using a positional scanning combinatorial library, it was found that the major substrate-specificity determinant is for Ala in the P2 position [3]. The enzyme shows only a slight preference for basic amino acids in the P1 and P3 positions and a preference for aliphatic amino acids such as Ile, Pro, Val, Leu and norleucine in the P4 position [3]. Belongs in peptidase family C1A.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Meighan, P. and Pirzad, R. Mite endopeptidase 1. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1187-1189.

2. Kalsheker, N.A., Deam, S., Chambers, L., Sreedharan, S., Brocklehurst, K. and Lomas, D.A. The house dust mite allergen Der p1 catalytically inactivates α1-antitrypsin by specific reactive centre loop cleavage: a mechanism that promotes airway inflammation and asthma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 221 (1996) 59-61. [PMID: 8660343]

3. Harris, J., Mason, D.E., Li, J., Burdick, K.W., Backes, B.J., Chen, T., Shipway, A., Van Heeke, G., Gough, L., Ghaemmaghami, A., Shakib, F., Debaene, F. and Winssinger, N. Activity profile of dust mite allergen extract using substrate libraries and functional proteomic microarrays. Chem. Biol. 11 (2004) 1361-1372. [PMID: 15489163]

4. Schulz, O., Sewell, H.F. and Shakib, F. Proteolytic cleavage of CD25, the α subunit of the human T cell interleukin 2 receptor, by Der p 1, a major mite allergen with cysteine protease activity. J. Exp. Med. 187 (1998) 271-275. [PMID: 9432986]

5. Schulz, O., Sewell, H.F. and Shakib, F. A sensitive fluorescent assay for measuring the cysteine protease activity of Der p 1, a major allergen from the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Mol. Pathol. 51 (1998) 222-224. [PMID: 9893750]

6. Takai, T., Kato, T., Sakata, Y., Yasueda, H., Izuhara, K., Okumura, K. and Ogawa, H. Recombinant Der p 1 and Der f 1 exhibit cysteine protease activity but no serine protease activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 328 (2005) 944-952. [PMID: 15707969]

[EC 3.4.22.65 created 2007]

EC 3.4.22.66

Accepted name: calicivirin

Reaction: Endopeptidase with a preference for cleavage when the P1 position is occupied by Glu and the P1' position is occupied by Gly

Other name(s): Camberwell virus processing peptidase; Chiba virus processing peptidase; Norwalk virus processing peptidase; Southampton virus processing peptidase; Southampton virus; norovirus virus processing peptidase; calicivirus trypsin-like cysteine protease; calicivirus TCP; calicivirus 3C-like protease; calicivirus endopeptidase; rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 3C endopeptidase

Comments: Viruses that are members of the Norovirus genus (Caliciviridae family) are a major cause of epidemic acute viral gastroenteritis [4]. The nonstructural proteins of these viruses are produced by proteolytic cleavage of a large precursor polyprotein, performed by a protease that is incorporated into the polyprotein [6]. Cleavage sites are apparently defined by features based on both sequence and structure since several sites in the polyprotein fulfilling the identified sequence requirements are not cleaved [1]. The presence of acidic (Asp), basic (Arg), aromatic (Tyr) or aliphatic (Leu) amino acids at the P1′ position results in only minor differences in cleavage efficiency, suggesting that steric or conformational constraints may play a role in determining specificity [1]. Changes to the amino acid at the P2 position do not alter cleavage efficiency [1,2]. Belongs in peptidase family C37.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Meyers, G., Rossi, C. and Thiel, H.J. Calicivirus endopeptidases. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1380-1382.

2. Wirblich, C., Sibilia, M., Boniotti, M.B., Rossi, C., Thiel, H.J. and Meyers, G. 3C-like protease of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: identification of cleavage sites in the ORF1 polyprotein and analysis of cleavage specificity. J. Virol. 69 (1995) 7159-7168. [PMID: 7474137]

3. Martín Alonso, J.M., Casais, R., Boga, J.A. and Parra, F. Processing of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus polyprotein. J. Virol. 70 (1996) 1261-1265. [PMID: 8551592]

4. Liu, B., Clarke, I.N. and Lambden, P.R. Polyprotein processing in Southampton virus: identification of 3C-like protease cleavage sites by in vitro mutagenesis. J. Virol. 70 (1996) 2605-2610. [PMID: 8642693]

5. Liu, B.L., Viljoen, G.J., Clarke, I.N. and Lambden, P.R. Identification of further proteolytic cleavage sites in the Southampton calicivirus polyprotein by expression of the viral protease in E. coli. J. Gen. Virol. 80 (1999) 291-296. [PMID: 10073687]

[EC 3.4.22.66 created 2007]

EC 3.4.22.67

Accepted name: zingipain

Reaction: Preferential cleavage of peptides with a proline residue at the P2 position

Other name(s): ginger protease; GP-I; GP-II; ginger protease II (Zingiber officinale); zingibain

Comments: This enzyme is found in ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and is a member of the papain family. GP-II contains two glycosylation sites. The enzyme is inhibited by some divalent metal ions, such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ [2]. Belongs in peptidase family C1.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Choi, K.H. and Laursen, R.A. Amino-acid sequence and glycan structures of cysteine proteases with proline specificity from ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 1516-1526. [PMID: 10691991]

2. Ohtsuki, K., Taguchi, K., Sato, K. and Kawabata, M. Purification of ginger proteases by DEAE-Sepharose and isoelectric focusing. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1243 (1995) 181-184. [PMID: 7873561]

3. Choi, K.H., Laursen, R.A. and Allen, K.N. The 2.1 Å structure of a cysteine protease with proline specificity from ginger rhizome, Zingiber officinale. Biochemistry 38 (1999) 11624-11633. [PMID: 10512617]

[EC 3.4.22.67 created 2007]

EC 3.4.22.68

Accepted name: Ulp1 peptidase

Reaction: Hydrolysis of the α-linked peptide bond in the sequence Gly-Gly┼Ala-Thr-Tyr at the C-terminal end of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) propeptide, Smt3, leading to the mature form of the protein. A second reaction involves the cleavage of an ε-linked peptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of the mature SUMO and the lysine ε-amino group of the target protein

Other name(s): Smt3-protein conjugate proteinase; Ubl-specific protease 1; Ulp1; Ulp1 endopeptidase; Ulp1 protease

Comments: The enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also recognize small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) from human as a substrate in both SUMO-processing (α-linked peptide bonds) and SUMO-deconjugation (ε-linked peptide bonds) reactions [1,2,3]. Ulp1 has several functions, including an essential role in chromosomal segregation and progression of the cell cycle through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Belongs in peptidase family C48.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Lima, C.D. Ulp1 endopeptidase. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1340-1344.

2. Li, S.-J. and Hochstrasser, M. A new protease required for cell-cycle progression in yeast. Nature 398 (1999) 246-251. [PMID: 10094048]

3. Taylor, D.L., Ho, J.C., Oliver, A. and Watts, F.Z. Cell-cycle-dependent localisation of Ulp1, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pmt3 (SUMO)-specific protease. J. Cell Sci. 115 (2002) 1113-1122. [PMID: 11884512]

4. Li, S.-J. and Hochstrasser, M. The Ulp1 SUMO isopeptidase: distinct domains required for viability, nuclear envelope localization, and substrate specificity. J. Cell Biol. 160 (2003) 1069-1081. [PMID: 12654900]

5. Ihara, M., Koyama, H., Uchimura, Y., Saitoh, H. and Kikuchi, A. Noncovalent binding of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protease to SUMO is necessary for enzymatic activities and cell growth. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 16465-16475. [PMID: 17428805]

6. Mukhopadhyay, D. and Dasso, M. Modification in reverse: the SUMO proteases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 32 (2007) 286-295. [PMID: 17499995]

[EC 3.4.22.68 created 2008, modified 2011]

EC 3.4.22.69

Accepted name: SARS coronavirus main proteinase

Reaction: TSAVLQSGFRK-NH2 and SGVTFQGKFKK the two peptides corresponding to the two self-cleavage sites of the SARS 3C-like proteinase are the two most reactive peptide substrates. The enzyme exhibits a strong preference for substrates containing Gln at P1 position and Leu at P2 position.

Other name(s): 3cLpro; 3C-like protease; coronavirus 3C-like protease; Mpro; SARS 3C-like protease; SARS coronavirus 3CL protease; SARS coronavirus main peptidase; SARS coronavirus main protease; SARS-CoV 3CLpro enzyme; SARS-CoV main protease; SARS-CoV Mpro; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus main protease

Comments: SARS coronavirus main protease is the key enzyme in SARS coronavirus replicase polyprotein processing. In peptidase family C30.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Goetz, D.H., Choe, Y., Hansell, E., Chen, Y.T., McDowell, M., Jonsson, C.B., Roush, W.R., McKerrow, J. and Craik, C.S. Substrate specificity profiling and identification of a new class of inhibitor for the major protease of the SARS coronavirus. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 8744-8752. [PMID: 17605471]

2. Fan, K., Wei, P., Feng, Q., Chen, S., Huang, C., Ma, L., Lai, B., Pei, J., Liu, Y., Chen, J. and Lai, L. Biosynthesis, purification, and substrate specificity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3C-like proteinase. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 1637-1642. [PMID: 14561748]

3. Akaji, K., Konno, H., Onozuka, M., Makino, A., Saito, H. and Nosaka, K. Evaluation of peptide-aldehyde inhibitors using R188I mutant of SARS 3CL protease as a proteolysis-resistant mutant. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16:9400 (2008). [PMID: 18845442]

[EC 3.4.22.69 created 2009]

EC 3.4.22.70

Accepted name: sortase A

Reaction: The enzyme catalyzes a cell wall sorting reaction in which a surface protein with a sorting signal containing a LPXTG motif is cleaved between the Thr and Gly residue. The resulting threonine carboxyl end of the protein is covalently attached to a pentaglycine cross-bridge of peptidoglycan

Other name(s): SrtA; SrtA protein; SrtA sortase

Comments: In peptidase family C60.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, MEROPS, Metacyc, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Ton-That, H., Liu, G., Mazmanian, S.K., Faull, K.F. and Schneewind, O. Purification and characterization of sortase, the transpeptidase that cleaves surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus at the LPXTG motif. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 12424-12429. [PMID: 10535938]

2. Zong, Y., Bice, T.W., Ton-That, H., Schneewind, O. and Narayana, S.V. Crystal structures of Staphylococcus aureus sortase A and its substrate complex. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 31383-31389. [PMID: 15117963]

3. Race, P.R., Bentley, M.L., Melvin, J.A., Crow, A., Hughes, R.K., Smith, W.D., Sessions, R.B., Kehoe, M.A., McCafferty, D.G. and Banfield, M.J. Crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes sortase A: implications for sortase mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 6924-6933. [PMID: 19129180]

[EC 3.4.22.70 created 2009]

EC 3.4.22.71

Accepted name: sortase B

Reaction: The enzyme catalyses a cell wall sorting reaction in which a surface protein with a sorting signal containing a NPXTN motif is cleaved between the Thr and Asn residue. The resulting threonine carboxyl end of the protein is covalently attached to a pentaglycine cross-bridge of peptidoglycan.

Other name(s): SrtB

Comments: In peptidase family C60.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, CAS registry number:

References:

1. Zong, Y., Mazmanian, S.K., Schneewind, O. and Narayana, S.V. The structure of sortase B, a cysteine transpeptidase that tethers surface protein to the Staphylococcus aureus cell wall. Structure 12 (2004) 105-112. [PMID: 14725770]

2. Bierne, H., Garandeau, C., Pucciarelli, M.G., Sabet, C., Newton, S., Garcia-del Portillo, F., Cossart, P. and Charbit, A. Sortase B, a new class of sortase in Listeria monocytogenes. J. Bacteriol. 186 (2004) 1972-1982. [PMID: 15028680]

[EC 3.4.22.71 created 2009]


Continued with EC 3.4.23.
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