IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature

EC 2.3.1.298

Accepted name: ultra-long-chain ceramide synthase

Reaction: an ultra-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA + a sphingoid base = an ultra-long-chain ceramide + CoA

Glossary: a sphingoid base = an amino alcohol, composed predominantly of 18 carbon atoms, characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl group at C-1 (and often also at C-3), and an amine group at C-2.
an ultra-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA with a chain length of 28 or longer.

Other name(s): mammalian ceramide synthase 3; sphingoid base N-ultra-long-chain fatty acyl-coA transferase; CERS3 (gene name)

Systematic name: ultra-long-chain fatty acyl-coA:sphingoid base N-acyltransferase

Comments: Mammals have six ceramide synthases that exhibit relatively strict specificity regarding the chain-length of their acyl-CoA substrates. Ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3) is the only enzyme that is active with ultra-long-chain acyl-CoA donors (C28 or longer). It is active in the epidermis, where its products are incorporated into acylceramides. CERS3 also accepts (2R)-2-hydroxy fatty acids and ω-hydroxy fatty acids, and can accept very-long-chain acyl-CoA substrates (see EC 2.3.1.297, very-long-chain ceramide synthase). It can use multiple sphingoid bases including sphinganine, sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and (6R)-6-hydroxysphingosine.

References:

1. Mizutani, Y., Kihara, A. and Igarashi, Y. LASS3 (longevity assurance homologue 3) is a mainly testis-specific (dihydro)ceramide synthase with relatively broad substrate specificity. Biochem. J. 398 (2006) 531-538. [PMID: 16753040]

2. Mizutani, Y., Kihara, A., Chiba, H., Tojo, H. and Igarashi, Y. 2-Hydroxy-ceramide synthesis by ceramide synthase family: enzymatic basis for the preference of FA chain length. J. Lipid Res. 49 (2008) 2356-2364. [PMID: 18541923]

3. Jennemann, R., Rabionet, M., Gorgas, K., Epstein, S., Dalpke, A., Rothermel, U., Bayerle, A., van der Hoeven, F., Imgrund, S., Kirsch, J., Nickel, W., Willecke, K., Riezman, H., Grone, H.J. and Sandhoff, R. Loss of ceramide synthase 3 causes lethal skin barrier disruption. Hum. Mol. Genet. 21 (2012) 586-608. [PMID: 22038835]

4. Mizutani, Y., Sun, H., Ohno, Y., Sassa, T., Wakashima, T., Obara, M., Yuyama, K., Kihara, A. and Igarashi, Y. Cooperative synthesis of ultra long-chain fatty acid and ceramide during keratinocyte differentiation. PLoS One 8 (2013) e67317. [PMID: 23826266]

[EC 2.3.1.298 created 2019]


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