Reaction: (1) protoviolaceinate + NAD(P)H + O2 = violaceinate + NAD(P)+ + H2O
(2) protodeoxyviolaceinate + NAD(P)H + O2 = deoxyviolaceinate + NAD(P)+ + H2O
For diagram of reaction click here.
Glossary: violacein = 5-(5-hydroxy-3-indolyl)-3-(3-oxinodolylidene)-2-oxopyrroline
Other name(s): proviolaceinate monooxygenase; vioC (gene name)
Systematic name: protoviolaceinate,NAD(P)H:O2 oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum, participates in the biosynthesis of the violet pigment violacein. The products, violaceinate and deoxyviolaceinate, undergo non-enzymic autooxidation into violacein and deoxyviolacein, respectively.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:
1. Balibar, C.J. and Walsh, C.T. In vitro biosynthesis of violacein from L-tryptophan by the enzymes VioA-E from Chromobacterium violaceum. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 15444-15457. [PMID: 17176066]
2. Shinoda, K., Hasegawa, T., Sato, H., Shinozaki, M., Kuramoto, H., Takamiya, Y., Sato, T., Nikaidou, N., Watanabe, T. and Hoshino, T. Biosynthesis of violacein: a genuine intermediate, protoviolaceinic acid, produced by VioABDE, and insight into VioC function. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2007) 4140-4142. [PMID: 17925955]