This module explores the national and international institutions that are available for the enforcement of international criminal law. Beginning with the international criminal tribunal at Nuremberg, it traces the evolution of international criminal tribunals in a historical perspective. It considers in detail the Chapter VII powers of the Security Council and their use in the setting up of ad hoc tribunals. The jurisdiction, competence and contribution of the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia and the International Criminal tribunal for Rwanda are considered in detail. The continuing relevance of ad hoc mechanisms of accountability is considered in light of the jurisprudence of the Special Tribunals in Lebanon, Sierra Leone, Iraq and Cambodia. A large part of the course will be devoted to the Permanent International Criminal Court. The final part of the module explores whether accountability through criminal processes is mandatory or permissive, and the extent to which accountability can be achieved in non-judicial forums such as Truth and Amnesty Commissions.
3.15 hour examination