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School of Law

Dr Raphael Heffron, BA, MA, MLitt, MPhil, PhD, Barrister at Law


Jean Monnet Professor in Energy and Natural Resources Law and Policy



Professor Raphael Heffron has moved to the Centre of Energy, Petrolium, Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee from 1 April 2018. He will not be teaching at QMUL for the next academic year.

Raphael Heffron is Jean Monnet Chair in Energy & Natural Resources Law (awarded by the European Commission) at the Energy and Natural Resources Law Institute at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). His work is international and combines a mix of energy law, policy and economics – including interdisciplinary energy research, EU and US energy law and policy. He has published over 100 publications of different types.

Raphael’s research has involved funding from UK national research councils (the ESRC, and the EPSRC), the EU (in a Horizon 2020 project) and currently through the European Commission (Jean Monnet Chair). He has acted as a consultant for the World Bank and London think tanks. His research has been cited over 200 times in the last two years. Raphael is on the Editorial Board of the International Energy Law Review and is also Consulting Editor of the Halsbury’s Laws of England volumes on Energy Law.

Raphael is currently the Co-Chair of the UK Energy Law and Policy AssociationVisiting Professor in Energy Law at the International Hellenic University (Greece); and an Associate Researcher at the Energy Policy Research Group at the University of Cambridge. He will be Visiting Professor at Paris-Dauphine University later this year (2018).

Raphael read for his PhD at Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge. He is also a trained Barrister-at-Law and was called to the Bar in July 2007 in the Republic of Ireland. He holds degrees from the University of Cambridge (MPhil, PhD), the University of St. Andrews (MLitt), and Trinity College Dublin (BA, MA).

Formerly Raphael held permanent lectureships at the University of Leeds and the University of Stirling (Scotland) where he was also the Programme Director for the LLM in International Energy Law and Policy. In the past he has held visiting positions at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA, USA (Visiting Student), The University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA (Visiting Scholar), and the British Institute for International and Comparative Law (Visiting Research Fellow). At the University of Cambridge, Raphael was a Teaching Fellow at the Faculty of Economics and also a Research Assistant at the Department of Engineering.

Postgraduate Teaching

Professor Raphael Heffron has moved to the Centre of Energy, Petrolium, Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee from 1 April 2018. He will not be teaching at QMUL for the next academic year.


Raphael's research interests are in energy, environmental and planning law and policy. His research perspective is through law and economics and he focuses in particular on: energy infrastructure development, electricity markets, energy subsidies, energy liability, the EIA process, energy justice and Arctic energy law.

Of importance is the aim to understand the legal challenges involved in planning for new energy infrastructure projects. Raphael’s research interests crosses the disciplines of planning law, public administration, project management, competition law, tort and strategy.

Funded research

Raphael’s research has involved funding from UK national research councils (the ESRC, and the EPSRC), and is currently funded by the EU (in a Horizon 2020 project) and the European Commission (for energy law).

Works in progress

  • GATEWAY – EU Horizon 2020 Project, 2015-2017 (Law – Work Package Leader)
  • Energy Justice Research Project
  • Nuclear Energy and Offshore Oil and Gas Liability Law
  • International Energy Law
  • Future of Energy Law.



  • Cameron, P. D. and Heffron, R. J. 2016. (editors). (2nd Edition). Legal Aspects of EU Energy Regulation Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK
  • Heffron, R. J., McCauley, D., Johnston, A. and Tromans, S. (editors). 2016. Energy Law and Energy Infrastructure Development for a Low-Carbon World. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. (2017, Forthcoming)
  • Delivering Energy Law and Policy in the EU and US: A Reader, Heffron R.J., and Little G. (Eds). Edinburgh University Press: UK. (2016)
  • Heffron. R. J. 2015. Energy Law in Ireland. Roundhall, Thomson Reuters: Dublin, Ireland
  • Heffron, R. J. 2015. Energy Law: An Introduction. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany
  • Heffron. R. J. 2015. Deconstructing Energy Law and Policy: The Case of Nuclear Energy. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Selected Peer Reviewed Articles

  • Heffron, R. J. 2016. The Global Future of Energy Law. International Energy Law Review, 7, 290- 295
  • Heffron, R. J. and McManus, F. 2016. Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental Law in Scotland, 20, 1-28
  • Heffron, R. J., Roberts, P., Cameron, P. and Johnston, A. 2016. A Review of Energy Law Education in the UK. Journal of World Energy Law and Business, 9 (5), 346-356
  • Heffron, R. J. and Talus. K. 2016. The Evolution of Energy Law and Energy Jurisprudence: Insights for Energy Analysts and Researchers. Energy Research and Social Science, 19, 1-10
  • Heffron, R. J. and Talus. K. 2016. The development of energy law in the 21st century: a paradigm shift? Journal of World Energy Law and Business, 9 (3), 189-202
  • Sovacool, B, Heffron, R. J., McCauley, D & Goldthau, A. 2016. Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns. Nature Energy, doi: 10.1038/nenergy.2016.24
  • Heffron, R., Ashley, S. and Nuttall, W. J. 2016. The Global Nuclear Liability Regime Post Fukushima Daiichi. Progress in Nuclear Energy 90 (July 2016), 1-10
  • McCauley, D, Heffron, R, Pavlenko, M, Rehner, RWM & Holmes, RT 2016, 'Energy justice in the Arctic: implications for energy infrastructural development' Energy Research and Social Science, vol 17, pp. 56-65.,10.1016/j.erss.2016.03.019
  • Jenkins, KEH, Heffron, R & McCauley, D 2016, 'The Political Economy of Energy Justice in Canada, the UK and Australia: A Nuclear Energy Perspective'. in T Graaf, B Sovacool, A Ghosh & M Klare (eds), The Palgrave Handbook of the International Political Economy of Energy.Palgrave
  • Jenkins, K, McCauley, D, Heffron, R, Stephan, H & Rehner, R. 2016. Energy justice: a conceptual review. Energy Research and Social Science , 11, 174-182
  • Heffron RJ, McCauley D and Sovacool BK., 2015, ‘Resolving Society's Energy Trilemma through the Energy Justice Metric’, Energy Policy, 87, 168-176
  • Heffron, R. J. 2014. Energy Subsidy Reporting: its creation and enforcement through International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). European Company Law, 11 (2), 133-136
  • Heffron, R. J. and McCauley, D. 2014. “Achieving Sustainable Supply Chains through Energy Justice”, Applied Energy, 123, 435-437
  • Heffron, R. J. 2013. Nuclear Energy Policy in the United States 1990-2010: A Federal or State Responsibility. Energy Policy, 64, 254-266
  • Heffron, R. J. 2013. Accommodating Energy Law within Environmental Law: An Irish Exploration. Irish Planning and Environmental Law, 20 (2), 56-64
  • Heffron, R. J. 2013. Lessons for Nuclear New Build in the USA 1990-2010: A Three State Analysis. Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 80 (5), 876-892
  • Heffron, R. J. 2013. “The Need for Proactive over Reactive Nuclear Law for the International Nuclear Industry”. Oil, Gas and Energy Law, 11 (1), 1-21
  • Heffron, R. J. 2013. The Application of Contrast Explanation to Energy Policy Research: UK Nuclear Energy Policy 2002-2012. Energy Policy, 55, 602-616
  • Heffron, R. J. and Haynes, P. J. 2012. Striking a statutory balance: constant change in residential leases versus static change in commercial leases in the UK. The Conveyancer and Property Law Journal, 76 (3), 195-206
  • Heffron, R. J. 2012. Romanian Nuclear New Build: Progress Amidst Turbulence. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 56, 43-60.

Selected Working Papers

  • Heffron, R. J. and Nuttall, W. J. 2014. The Nuclear Energy Issue in an Independent Scotland. Energy Policy Research Group Working Paper Series EPRG WP 1407, Cambridge: University of Cambridge

  • Thomas, A. and Heffron, R. J. 2012. Nuclear Legal Liability for Third Parties: A Nuclear Supplier’s Perspective. Energy Policy Research Working Paper Series, EPRG WP 1205, Cambridge: University of Cambridge.

Selected Publications - Conference Proceedings, Other Reviews and Commentary Analysis

  • Johnston, A., Heffron, R. J. and McCauley, D. Rethinking the scope and necessity of energy subsidies in the United Kingdom. Energy Research & Social Science, 3, 1-4
  • Heffron, R. J., Allen, M. and McCauley, D. 2013. The Forgotten Law and Policy Issue: Nuclear Waste Management in Scotland. Edinburgh Law Review, 17 (3), 325-332
  • Heffron, R. J., Johnston, A., McCauley, D. and Jenkins, K. 2013. Policy Delivery on Low Carbon Energy Generation Infrastructure in the UK: Conference Overview. Energy Policy, 61, 1367-1369.


Professor Raphael Heffron has moved to the Centre of Energy, Petrolium, Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee from 1 April 2018. He will not be teaching at QMUL for the next academic year.

Raphael is currently supervising students on international energy law at the Energy and Natural Resources Law Institute and in addition, he is currently supervising three PhD students on the following topics:

  • International Energy Law
  • Environmental Governance (with Professor Andrew Keay, University of Leeds)
  • Project Finance in the Energy Sector.

Public Engagement

Activities since September 2015

  • Scientific Committee, Session Chair and Speaker on Energy Justice, ERSS Conference, Spain (April 2017)
  • Invited Speaker, Liverpool Hope University UK (March 2017)
  • Judge of Spark Nuclear Energy Contest (March 2017)
  • Session Chair on ‘Energy Justice’ and Speaker, Energy Transitions Conference 2017, University of Eastern Finland, Finland (March 2017)
  • Invited Speaker & Panelist, Arctic Energy Resources, Energy Society, London School of Economics, UK (March 2017)
  • Law and CCS, Gateway Stakeholder Meeting, Queen Mary University of London (February 2017)
  • ESCP MBA Executive Masters (ESCP Business School – London/Paris), London, UK (February 2017)
  • Invited Speaker, UK CCS Research Centre, Imperial College, London, UK (January 2017)
  • Law and CCS, Gateway Project Review Meeting, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium (December 2016)
  • Invited Speaker: REMIT in operation in the UK – Italian Energy Law Association, Milan, Italy (November 2016)
  • Invited to Guest Lecturer: “Energy Subsidies” Masterclass, Deapartment of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews (November 2016)
  • Invited to speak at the University of Cambridge at their Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy, and Natural Resource Governance (CEENRG) on the The Evolution of Energy Law (20 October 2016).
  • Professor Raphael Heffron interviewed by Materials World (The Institute of  Materials, Minerals and Mining) on nuclear energy law and policy.
  • Energy justice: A conceptual review at the European Energy & Society Association (September 2016)
  • Winners & Losers after Paris COP21 @ the Society of Legal Scholars (September 2016)
  • The Role of Energy Justice Across the Disciplines @ UK Royal Geography Society (Aug/Sep 2016)
  • Lexis-Nexis “Embedded Generation Charges in the UK Electricity Sector.” – In Interview (August 2016)
  • PhD Examiner, University of Cambridge (July 2016)
  • The Impact of Climate Change on Theory Development for Energy & Environmental Law @ All Souls College - University of Oxford (June/July 2016)
  • Invited Key-Note Speaker: Hungarian Energy Law Conference, Hungary (June 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – 12th Annual Conference for Environmental Professionals: Law and the Environment 2014. Faculty of Law, University College Cork (April 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – Career Roundtable: Where will legal knowldege get me in the energy sector, UK Energy Research Centre (April 2016)
  • PhD External Examiner – University of Aberdeen (March 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – Workshop on ‘Fukushima Five Years On’ Faculty of Law & Darwin College, University of Cambridge, UK (March 2016)
  • Speaker and Session Chair - Energy Transitions Conference 2016, University of Eastern Finland, Finland (March 2016)
  • Guest Lecture – LLM Masters Course,  School of Law, University of Reading, UK (February 2016)
  • Invited Expert – Roundtable on ‘Renewable Energy Finance’ (February 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – School of Law Seminar Series, University of Aberdeen, UK (February 2016)
  • Invited Expert – Roundtable on ‘EU Gas Supply and Pipeline Development’ (January 2016)
  • External Examiner  LLM Programme, University of Wolverhampton (December-ongoing)
  • Co-Organiser (with Professor Kim Talus), Workshop ‘The Development of the Theory of Energy Law’, Helsinki, Finland (November 2015).
  • Invited Speaker – Future of Energy Law , Energy Law Business Forum (November 2015)
  • Invited Speaker – The EU Energy Union, United Kingdom Energy Research Centre – Annual Meeting (November 2015)
  • QMUL-ELSA – “Is it Worh Doing an LLM” (November 2015)
  • Guest Lecturer – “Energy Subsidies and Stranded Assets” Masterclass, Deapartment of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews (November 2015)
  • Invited Speaker – “Transitioning Scottish Energy Law PhD Graduates into Employment” Aberdeen Conference (October 2015) 
  • Panel Speaker - The EU Energy Union, The Energy Forum, Queen Mary University of London (October 2015)
  • Interview with Russian TV station (RTVi) – on Renewable Energy Development in Scotland (October 2015)
  • External LLM Examiner – Unversity of West Indies, Barbados, (Ongoing)
  • Invited Panel Speaker – Arctic Resources Futures - UCL Event: (October 2015)
  • Conference Presentation – Energy Infrastructure Development in the Arctic - UCL (October 2015)
  • Guest Lecture - “Introduction to Energy Law” Engineering Masters Programme, University of Leeds (October 2015)
  • Thomson Reuters Practical Law – “Legal Issues Faced by the Energy Sector" - In Interview (September 2015)
  • External PhD Examiner - on ‘Nuclear Liability Law’ (September 2015)
  • Lexis-Nexis “Major Change or Just Finishing the EMR Process” – In Interview

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