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School of Law

Thaddeus Manu


PhD Student



Thesis title

The Impact of WTO/TRIPS Agreement on Local Production of Essential Pharmaceuticals and the Supply of APIs for Public Health Protection in Africa.


Dr Gail Evans


High cost and shortage of essential pharmaceutical products in developing countries has multiple-faceted faces, however the most prominent factor that impinge on sustainable supply of essential medicines are patents and the protection of undisclosed information catalogued under WTO/TRIPS Agreement Articles 27.1 and 39 respectively preventing most developing countries from deploying technological therapies for public health protection. As a result, Africa alone records over 1.4 million deaths every year out of the over 1.9 million vulnerable people who contract the HIV/AIDS disease every year. Currently, out of the 22.4 million HIV/AIDS patients, less than 3 million people are receiving life-long anti-retroviral medicines in Africa. The premise of my research focuses on designing public research exemption clauses for institutional reforms in developing countries and legal provision requirements within the WTO/TRIPS Agreement for reservation right based on non commercial exploitation within the principle of public health protection for the supply of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients to manufacture essential medicines to protect public health from preventable endemic diseases that claim over 10 million lives a year in Africa alone.