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School of Geography

Dr Gale Raj-Reichert


Lecturer in Economic Geography

Telephone: +44 (0)20 7882 2746
Room Number: Bancroft Building, Room 2.10


Gale’s research interests are on labour governance of global production networks in developing countries. Her current research focuses on how changing relationships and power dynamics between firms in the electronics industry, governments, non-governmental organizations and trade unions affect negotiations, strategies and activities around labour governance in Malaysia and China. Gale’s fieldwork is based in the US, EU, Malaysia, Singapore, China and Hong Kong. Gale’s publications include papers in Regulation and Governance, Geoforum (two papers) and Competition and Change. Her research has also had an impact in policy communities, notably through her work with the International Labour Organization.

Gale Raj-Reichert's CV [PDF 436KB]


Research Interests:

Gale has been awarded a British Academy Rising Star Engagement Award on ‘Improving labour conditions in global production networks through socially responsible public procurement’ Rising Star Engagement Awards Rising Star Engagement 2018 brief [PDF 71KB] (March 2018 to March 2019). With a particular focus on the European Union, the project aims to bring together public buyers, civil society organisations, and academics to understand the role of socially responsible public procurement and its effects on working conditions in global production networks. The objectives are to develop a conceptual and theoretical lens on the state as a governance actor, in hybrid form as regulator-buyer, exercised through market power in GPNs. The project will hold a multi-stakeholder launch event in November 2018. The project also will produce a Special Issue on ‘Socially responsible public procurement: an exploration of the state in labour governance in global production networks’ aimed at contributions from an inter-disciplinary set of papers (Call for Papers: Responsible Public Procurement Call for Papers [PDF 520KB]).



  • Raj-Reichert, G (forthcoming) Improving labour conditions in the global electronics industry: An exploration of governance in a global production network, British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship Monograph, Oxford University Press.
  • Gereffi, G, Ponte, S, and Raj-Reichert, G (forthcoming) Handbook on Global Value Chains, Edward Elgar Publishing.

Journal articles

  • Raj-Reichert, G (forthcoming) ‘How global value chains contribute to the middle-income trap: a case study of the electronics industry in Malaysia’, Journal of Development Studies.
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2015) ‘Exercising power over labour governance in the electronics industry’, Geoforum, Vol. 67: 89-92 (Google Scholar citations: 5) (Journal Impact Factor for 2017 = 2.566)
  • Nadvi, K, and Raj-Reichert, G (2015) ‘Governing health and safety at lower tiers of the computer industry global value chain’, Regulation & Governance, Vol. 9, no. 3: 243-258 (Google Scholar citations: 31) (Journal Impact Factor for 2017 = 2.735)
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2013) ‘Safeguarding labour in relocated factories: Health and safety governance in an electronics global production network’, Geoforum, Vol. 44: 23-31 (Google Scholar citations: 29)
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2011) ‘The Electronic Industry Code of Conduct: Private governance in a competitive and contested global production network’, Competition & Change, Vol. 15, no.3: 221-238 (Google Scholar citations: 21) (RG Journal Impact Factor for 2015/2016 = 1.81)

Book chapters

  • Raj-Reichert, G (forthcoming) ‘Transnational first-tier suppliers in global value chains’, in Gereffi, G, Ponte, S, and Raj-Reichert, G (eds) Handbook on Global Value Chains, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2018) ‘The Changing Landscape of Contract Manufacturing in the Electronics Industry Global Value Chain’, in Nathan, D. (eds) Upgrading and Innovation in Global Value Chains in Asia (Cambridge University Press).
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2017) ‘Public and private governance gaps in occupational health and safety: a case study of the electronics industry in Penang, Malaysia’, in Sustainability Politics and Limited Statehood: Contesting New Modes of Governance, (eds) Alejandro Esguerra, Nicole Helmerich, and Thomas Risse, Palgrave Macmillan (Governance and Limited Statehood series).


  • Raj-Reichert, G (2017) ‘Schwache Audit-Methoden’, c’t magazin für computer technik, 2017, Heft 1, pp. 127.
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2016) ‘Electronics brands and factories must commit to improve labour standards’, New Internationalist, 7 November.
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2016) ‘Exposing forced labour in Malaysian electronics: the role of a social auditor in labour governance within a global production network’. GDI Working Paper 2016-005. Manchester: The University of Manchester.
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2016) STUDY 4: Promoting decent work in the electronics industry global supply chain, in Sectoral Studies on Decent Work in Global Supply Chains: Comparative Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges for Social and Economic Upgrading, International Labour Office, Geneva.
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2016) ‘Dr Gale Raj-Reichert zur Rolle von Zulieferern und Audits: Interview mit einer Konferenz-Teilnehmerin’, in Sozial verantwortliche IT-Beschaffung in der Praxis: Hintergruende, Informationsquellen und Hilfestellungen, Weltwirtschaft, Oekologie & Entwicklung, e.V., Berlin.
  • Contributing author in International Labor Organization (2014) Ups and downs in the electronics industry: Fluctuating production and the use of temporary and other forms of employment, Issues paper for discussion at the Global Dialogue Forum on the Adaptability of Companies to Deal with Fluctuating Demands and the Incidence of Temporary and Other Forms of Employment in Electronics, GDFACE/2014, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2012) Governance in Global Production Networks: Managing environmental health risks in the personal computer production chain, Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Google Scholar citation: 1).
  • Contributing author (2011) ‘The role of quality and standards for competitiveness and trade: Standards and development’, in Harnessing quality for global competitiveness: Eastern Europe and Central Asia’s quality and standards, (ed) Jean-Louis Racine, World Bank: Washington, DC
  • Borrero, E, Raj, G (2005) General Agreement on Trade in Services: Conditions to Achieve Developing Country Objectives, T.R.A.D.E. Series Occasional Paper 13, South Centre, Geneva. Lead author

Blog entries

  • Raj-Reichert, G (2016) ‘Do global value chains lead to forced labour?’, in development@manchester (, March          
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2015) ‘To improve labour conditions in the global electronics industry, more attention needs to be paid to contract manufacturers’, in Labour and Electronics ( and Development@Manchester (, December 2015
  • Raj-Reichert, G and Nadvi, K (2015) ‘Improving labour conditions in the computer industry’, in Labour and Electronics (, Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures (, and Development@Manchester (, March and April
  • Raj-Reichert, G (2014) ‘Temporary workers in the electronics industry: consequences and potential solutions’, in Labour and Electronics (, and Development@Manchester (, October