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Institute of Dentistry - Barts and The London

Dr Lionel Milgrom, BSc MSc PhD CChem FRSC

Lionel

Chemistry Lecturer

Email: l.milgrom@qmul.ac.uk
Room Number: Office 2, Floor 4, Institute of Dentistry

Profile

Back in the late Cretaceous (when dinosaurs roamed the Earth), Dr Lionel Milgrom obtained his BSc in chemistry (1st Class Honours), followed by an MSc (on haemoprotein model compounds), both from Liverpool University.

The K-T Extinction Event disrupted most things, so he tried his hand(s) at the bass guitar, with some moderate musical (but not much financial) success. The Pleistocene saw his return to academe, when he acquired a PhD on the synthesis and testing of photosynthetic model compounds, from City of London Polytechnic (now part of London Metropolitan University).

A long interglacial began with three consecutive post-doctoral fellowships at Imperial College London, working with Professors Dennis Evans FRS (inorganic chemistry) and John Albery FRS (physical chemistry). An independent academic research career followed which took him to Brunel University (via Kingston University) as Senior Lecturer in Inorganic Chemistry.

His research - on the applications of porphyrin pigments in solar-energy conversion; discotic liquid crystals;  conducting polymers; catalysis, photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer and biological targeting of PDT - generated ten PhD students, three post-doctoral fellows, many academic papers and a critically acclaimed  academic text, The Colours of Life published by Oxford University Press.

He has pursued a parallel career as a science writer/journalist with many contributions to New Scientist (as chemistry consultant); Economist; Independent, Independent on Sunday, Daily Telegraph, the Financial Times and Chemistry World (house journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry – RSC – for which he was consulting correspondent ). He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC) after serving as a member of its ‘Honest Broker’ committee, investigating mediation between the chemical industries and the environmental lobby.

The Weichsel glaciation led to the closure of chemistry at Brunel, so he returned to Imperial to collaborate with renowned photo-chemist Professor David Phillips CBE, FRS on novel porphyrin-based compounds for PDT. Together with two other colleagues, they formed an anticancer biotech start-up company at Imperial called PhotoBiotics, to research and commercialise imaging and treatment of cancer via targeted PDT. Lionel was its first CEO and scientific director.

The Holocene saw him giving talks to schools and colleges of higher education which later evolved into teaching chemistry at various institutions including Birkbeck College, London Met Uni, University College School and Eton College.

He has an interest in various aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, which has subsequently generated many more academic papers and articles. He maintains active research interest in novel mechanisms for fast enzyme reactions; advances in water science; quantum theory at the macrolevel; investigating the philosophical basis of evidence-based medicine and developing a simple laboratory model of black holes.  He is very old…

 

Centre: Centre for Teaching and Innovation 

Teaching

I deliver chemistry seminars to support students on the SEFP course (SEF003 and SEF004)

Research

Research Interests:

 

  1. Applications of porphyrin pigments in solar-energy conversion; discotic liquid crystals; conducting polymers; catalysis, photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer and biological targeting of PDT.
  2. Novel mechanisms for fast enzyme reactions; advances in water science; quantum theory at the macrolevel; investigating the philosophical basis of evidence-based medicine and developing a simple laboratory model of black holes.

 

Publications

 

1."Luminescence of Bilirubin", J. Dalton, L.R. Milgrom, and R. Bonnett, Chem. Phys.
     Letts.
, (1979), 61, 242.

 2."A Novel Porphyrin with Weak Fluorescence Due to Intramolecular Electron-transfer 

    Quenching", J. Dalton and L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1979), 609.

 3."Tetrapyrroles 1. Substituent Effects on Porphyrin Electronic Spectra". J. Dalton, L.R. 

    Milgrom, and S.M. Pemberton, J. Chem.,Soc.,Perkin Trans. 2., (1980), 370.

 4."Non-rigid Molecules. Part 4. Hydrogen Scrambling in the Mass Spectra of  Hydro- 

    carbons." J. Dalton and L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., (1980), 76, 88.

5."Sub-microsecond Fluorescence Measurement with a Microprocessor-Enhanced
    Sampling Adaptor." J. Dalton, D. Hamilton, and L.R. Milgrom, J. Microprocessor Appln., (1980), 3, 11

6."Synthesis of Monofunctional Porphyrinyl Peptides Containing Glycine and Leucine."
    K.M. Smith, L.R. Milgrom, and (the late) G.W. Kenner, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1., (1981), 2065.

 7."Tetrapyrroles 2. Synthesis and Electronic Spectra of Some Quinone-Porphyrins." A.-C. 

    Chan, J. Dalton, and L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2., (1982), 87, 3175.

8."Kinetics of Triplet Decay of Water-soluble Porphyrins: Analysis of Ionic-strength
    Effects." V.H. Houlding, K. Kalyanasundaram, M. Graetzel, and L.R. Milgrom, J. Phys.
    Chem.
, (1983), 87, 3175.

 9."Synthesis of Some New Tetraarylporphyrins for Studies in Solar-Energy Conversion." 

    L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1., (1983), 2535.

10."The Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin." L.R. Milgrom, Tetrahedron, (1983), 39, 3895

11."Synthesis of Some New Tetraarylporphyrins for Studies in Solar-Energy Conversion.
      Part 2. Unsymmetrical Porphyrins." L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1.,
      (1984), 1483
   

12."1H- and 13C-Nmr Spectra of Palladium and Platinum Meso-tetrakis-Phenylporphyrin."
      L.R. Milgrom, Polyhedron, (1984), 3, 879

 

13."1H- and 13C-Nmr Spectra of Platinum Porphyrins. Part 2. Platinum Complexes of
      Mesotetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin and 2,3,7,8,13,17,18-
      Octaethylporphyrin." L.R. Milgrom, Polyhedron, (1985), 4, 1279.

 14."Nmr studies of Tin(IV) Porphyrins. Evidence for 'Through-space'  13C-1H Coupling in 

      Dihydroxo-5,10,15,20-mesotetrakisphenylporphyrinatotin(IV)." L.R. Milgrom and R.N.
      Sheppard, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1985), 350.

 15."1H- and 13C-Nmr Spectra of Platinum Porphyrins. Part 3. Platinum Complexes of 

       Deuteroporphyrin IX Dimethyl Ester." L.R. Milgrom, Polyhedron, (1985), 4, 1661.

16. "Luminescence of Porphyrins and Metalloporphyrins. Part 9. Covalently-bound Zinc
       Porphyrin-Viologen Complexes." G. Blondeel, A. Harriman, and L.R. Milgrom, Chem.
       Phys. Letts
., (1985), 118, 77.

17. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 2. Mesotetrakis(pyrogallyl)porphyrin." W.J.
       Albery, P.N. Bartlett, C.C. Jones, and L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Res., (M) (1985), 3801;
       (S) (1985), 365.

18. "Resonance Stabilisation of Zinc Porphyrin Pi-cation Radicals." P. Neta, M.-C. Richoux, A. Harriman, and L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday 2., (1986), 82, 209.

19. "An Unusual Oxidation of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethylporphyrin with Sodium Chloroaurate(III)." L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Res., (S), (1986), 452.

20. "Sterically-hindered Zinc Porphyrins for Solar-energy Conversion." J. Davilla, A. Harriman, M.-C. Richoux, and L.R. Milgrom, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1987), 525.

21. "A Light-harvesting Array of Synthetic Porphyrins." J. Davilla, A. Harriman, and L.R. Milgrom, Chem. Phys. Letts., (1987), 136, 427.

22. "Importance of Macrocyclic Ring Deformation in the Facile Aerial Oxidation of Phenolic Porphyrins." A.J. Golder, L.R. Milgrom, K.B. Nolan, and D.J. Povey, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1987), 1788

23. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 3. Metal Complexes of Mesotetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin." L.R. Milgrom, C.C. Jones, and A. Harriman, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin. Trans.2.,(1988), 71

24. "X-Ray Crystal Structure of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethylporphyrinatoplatinum(II):
       Potential for Correlation of Meso-carbon Bond Angle with One-bond C-H Coupling Constant in Some Diamagnetic Metal Complexes of OEP." L.R. Milgrom, R.N. Sheppard,         A.M.Z. Slawin, and D.J. Williams, Polyhedron, (1988), 7, 57.

25. "Crystal Structures of Palladium and Zinc Complexes of Mesotetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-
        hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin." A.J. Golder, L.R. Milgrom, K.B. Nolan, and D.J. Povey, Acta
        Cryst
., (1988), C44, 1916.

26. "Residual Paramagnetism in Silver(III) Metalloporphyrin Complexes." L.R. Milgrom and
       C.C. Jones, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1988), 576.

27. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 4. Unsymmetrical Porphyrins with 3,5-di-t-butyl-4
       hydroxyphenyl and 4-hydroxyphenyl Meso-substituents." L.R. Milgrom, N. Mofidi, C.C. Jones, and A. Harriman, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2., (1989), 301.

28. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 5. Unsymmetrical Porphyrins with 3,5-di-t-
      butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl and 3-hydroxyphenyl Meso-substituents." L.R. Milgrom, N.
      Mofidi, and A. Harriman, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2., (1989), 805.

29. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 6. Unsymmetrical Porphyrins with 3,5-di-t-
       butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl and 4-nitrophenyl Meso-substituents." L.R. Milgrom, N. Mofidi,
       and A. Harriman, Tetrahedron, (1989), 45, 7341.

30. "5,10,15,20-Mesotetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-quinomethide)porphyrinogen A Highly
      Puckered Tetrapyrrolic Macrocycle from the Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Phenolic
      Porphyrin." A.J. Golder, L.R. Milgrom, K.B. Nolan, and D.C. Povey, J. Chem. Soc.,
      Chem. Commun.
, (1989), 1751.

31. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 7. Effect of Solvent on the Aerial Oxidation
      of Mesotetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin and Some Metal Complexes."
      L.R. Milgrom, and C. Palmer, J. Chem. Res., (S), (1990), 66.

32. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 8. Decay of Radical Formed During the
      Aerial Oxidation of Mesotetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin." L.R.
      Milgrom and W.D. Flitter, Tetrahedron, (1991), 47, 7683.

33. "Mesotetrakis(2-imidazolyl)porphyrin (TIP). Evidence for Proton Conduction and Low-
      dimensional Ordering in the Solid State." L.R. Milgrom, S. Bone, D. Bruce, and S.
      Macdonald, J. Mole. Electron., (1991), 7, 91.

34. "Pi-cation Radical generation Via Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin." L.R. Milgrom, W.D.
      Flitter, and E.L. Short, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1991), 788.

35. "Improved Generation of Porphyrin Radicals Via Conproportionation." L.R. Milgrom and
      W.D. Flitter, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., (1991), 1492.

36. "Formation of Hydroxyl Radicals During the Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Phenolic
      Porphyrin." L.R. Milgrom, J.P. Hill, and W.D. Flitter, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun.,
      (1992), 773.

37. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 12. Spin-trapping of Solvent-derived
      Intermediates from the Addition of Base to an Oxidised Porphyrin." L.R. Milgrom and
      W.D. Flitter, Tetrahedron, (1992), 48, 2951.

38. "Platinum Porphyrins-IV. 195Pt-Nmr Spectra of Some Platinum(II) Complexes of Meso-
      and ß-substituted Porphyrins." L.R. Milgrom, R. Zuurbier, M. Gascoigne, D. Thomsett,
      and B.C. Moore, Polyhedron, (1992), 11, 1779.

39. "Molecular-Electronic Devices Containing Conductive Macrocyclic Compounds, The
      Macrocyclic Compounds, and Their Preparation." L.R. Milgrom (British Technology
      Group) PCT Int. Appl. WO 92 15099 (Cl. H01B1/12), 3.9.1992, GB Appl. 91/3991,
      26.2.1991.

40. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 13. Generation of Pi- Cation Radicals via
      Acid Addition to Mesotetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin and its 2-
      electron Oxidn Product." L.R. Milgrom and W.D. Flitter, Tetrahedron, (1993), 49, 507.

41. "Evidence for Solid-state Electronic Conductivity in Mixtures of a Porphyrin and its Two-
      electron Oxidation Product." L.R. Milgrom, J.P. Hill, and S. Bone, Adv. Mats. Opt.
      Electron.
, (1993), 2, 143.

42. "On The Reaction of Chloroform With Base in the Presence of Spin-traps." L.R.
      Milgrom, P.P. Payne, and W.D. Flitter, Tetrahedron, (1993), 49, 5407.

43."Facile Aerial Oxidation of a Porphyrin. Part 15. Uv/visible Spectroscopic Investigation of the Kinetics of                  Oxidation in Acidified Dilute Solutions." L.R. Milgrom and J.P. Hill, Heterocyclic Chem., (1993), 30, 1629.

44.Milgrom, LR; O’Neill, F. ”Porphyrins.” In The Chemistry of Natural Products, 2nd ed.; Thomson, RH, Ed.;                 Blackie Academic & Professional: London, 1993

45. "Platinum Porphyrins-V. Multinuclear Nmr of Some Platinum(IV) Porphyrin
      Complexes." L.R. Milgrom, R. Zuurbier, M. Gascoigne, D. Thomsett, and B.C. Moore,
      Polyhedron
, (1994), 13, 209.

46. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of Porphyrins. Part 16. Non-t-butyl-substituted Phenolic
      Porphyrins." L.R. Milgrom, J.P. Hill, and W.D.Flitter, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2.,
      (1994), 521.

47. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of Porphyrins. Part 17. Interaction of a Stable Porphyrin Radical
      with a Spin-trap." L.R. Milgrom, G. Yahioglu, and W.D. Flitter, Redox Report, 1994, 1,
      145.

48. "Facile Aerial Oxidation of Porphyrins. Part 18. N-alkylation of the Oxidised Product
      Derived from Meso-tetrakis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin." L.R. Milgrom,
      J.P. Hill, and G. Yahioglu, J. Heterocyclic Chem., (1995), 32, 97.

49. "Alkylation of the Unsymmetrically Substituted Porphyrin Meso-5,10,15-tris(3,5-di-t-4-
      hydroxyphenyl)-20-(4-pyridyl)porphyrin." L.R. Milgrom, J.P. Hill, and P.J.F. Dempster,
      Tetrahedron, (1994), 50, 13477.

50. "Towards Synthetic Porphyrin/Monoclonal Antibody Conjugates." L.R. Milgrom and F.
      O'Neill, Tetrahedron, (1995), 51, 2137

51. "Redox Behaviour of Phenolic Porphyrins in Basic Solutions: a Reappraisal." L.R.
      Milgrom, G. Yahioglu, and N. Jogiya, Free Rad. Res., 1996, 24, 19.

52. "5,10,15,20-meso-Tetraarylethynylporphyrins." L.R. Milgrom and G. Yahioglu,
      Tetrahedron Letts., 1995, 36, 9061.

53. "Trans-disubstituted meso-Tetraethynylporphyrins." L.R. Milgrom and G. Yahioglu,
      Tetrahedron Letts., 1996, 37, 4069.

54. "5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(N-protected-imidazol-2-yl)porphyrins." L.R. Milgrom, P.J.F.
      Dempsey, and G. Yahioglu, Tetrahedron, 1996, 52, 9877.

55. "Mesogenic Zn(II) Complexes of 5,10,15,20-Tetrarylethynyl-substituted Porphyrins, L.R.
      Milgrom, G. Yahioglu, D. Bruce, S. Morrone, F. Henari, and W. Blau, Adv. Mater, 1997,
      9, 313.

56. "Platinum Porphyrins. Part 6. Correlation of Substituent Effects With Multinuclear
       Chemical Shifts." L.R. Milgrom, R. Zuurbier, M. Gascoyne, D. Thomsett, and B.C.
       Moore, (in preparation).

57. "Third-Order Non-Linearity in Zn(II) Complexes of 5,10,15,20-Tetrarylethynyl-
       substituted Porphyrins", F. Z. Henari, and W. J. Blau, L.R. Milgrom, G. Yahioglu, D.
       Phillips, and J.A. Lacey,  Chem. Phys. Letts. 1997, 267, 229.

58. "Improved Synthesis of 10,20-Bis and 5,10,15,20-Tetraethynylporphyrins via Ethynyl
      Protection With Dicobalt Octacarbonyl", L.R. Milgrom, R.D. Rees, and G. Yahioglu
      Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 4905.

59. "Photophysical studies of Some 5,10,15,20-Tetrarylethynylporphyrinatozinc(II)
      Complexes as Potential Lead Compounds for Photodynamic Therapy", J. A. Lacey, and
      D. Phillips, L.R. Milgrom, G. Yahioglu,  Photochem., Photobiol., 1998, 67, 292.

60. "Substituted Porphyrins", L.R. Milgrom, G. Yahioglu (Brunel University) PCT Int. Appl. 9524028.9, 22/11/1996.

61. “Light years Ahead”, L.R. Milgrom and A. MacRobert, Chem. Brit., 1998, 34, 45.

62. “Synthesis of Porphyrin-PPV Copolymers for Applications in LEDs,” R. Iqbal, G.
      Yahioglu, L. Milgrom, S.C. Moratti, A.B. Holmes, F. Cacialli, J. Morgado and R.H.
       Friend, Synth. Met., 1999, 102, 1024-1025. 

63. “Synthesis of Porphyrin-PPV Copolymers for Applications in LEDs, R. Iqbal, S.C.
       Moratti, A.B. Holmes, G. Yahioglu, L.R. Milgrom, F. Cacialli, J. Morgado and R.H.
       Friend, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electronics, 2000, 11, 97-103. 

64. “Tuning the Red Emission of a Soluble Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) Upon Grafting of
       Porphyrin Side Groups, J. Morgado, F. Cacialli, R.H. Friend, R. Iqbal, G. Yahioglu, L.R.
       Milgrom, S.C. Moratti and A.B. Holmes, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2000, 325, 552-558. 

 

65. “Photo- and Electroluminescent Properties of a Porphyrin-Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)
      Derivative, J. Morgado, R. Iqbal, G. Yahioglu, L. R. Milgrom, S. C. Moratti, A. B.
      Holmes, R. H. Friend and F. Cacialli, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of
      Organic Solid State Materials V, (MRS Symposium), S. Ermer, J. R. Reynolds, J. W. 
      Perry, A. K-Y. Jen and Z. Bao, Eds., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 2000, 598, BB3.57.1-
      BB3.57.8. 

66. “Förster Energy Transfer and Control of the Luminescence in Blends of an Orange-
      emitting Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) and a Red-emitting Tetraphenylporphyrin, J.
      Morgado, F. Cacialli, R. Iqbal, S. C. Moratti, A. B. Holmes, G. Yahioglu, L. R. Milgrom
      and R. H. Friend, J. Mater. Chem., 2001, 11, 278-283.

67. “Molecular control of recombination dynamics in dye sensitised nanocrystalline TiO2
       films”, Clifford JN, Yahioglu G, Milgrom LR, Durrant JRChem Commun 2002, 1260.

68. “Regulating the stability of 2D crystal structures using an oxidation state-dependent
      molecular conformation.”, J.P. Hill, Y. Wakayama, W. Schmitt, T. Tsuruoka, T.
      Nakanishi, M.L. Zandler, A.L. McCarty, F. D'Souza, L.R. Milgrom, K. Ariga, Chem
      Commun.
, 2006, 2320.

69. “Targeted Photodynamic Therapy with multiply-loaded recombinant antibody
      fragments”, Bhatti M, Yahioglu G, Milgrom LR, Garcia-Maya, M, Chester K, and
      Deonarain M, Int J  Cancer 2008;122(5):1155-1163.

71. “Synthesis and phase behaviour of β-octaalkyl porphyrins”, Shearman GC, Yahioglu G,
      Kirstein J, Milgrom LR and Seddon JM. J Mats. Chem. 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b812724g

72. Milgrom LR. Why is catalase so fast? A preliminary network hypothesis for the rapid enzyme-catalysed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. WATER 2016;7:129-146, published April 28th 2016.

73.Barr IA, Bull A, O’Brien E,
Drillsma-Milgrom KA, and Milgrom LR. Illuminating Black Holes. Phys Educ. 2016; 51: 043001 (published on-line July 2016).

74. Milgrom LR, Drillsma-Milgrom KA. Illuminating Black Holes Part 2. Vortices, Soap Stars, and
      Bubble Galaxies. Phys Educ. 2017; 52: 033005.

75. Milgrom LR. Why is catalase so fast? Part 2; schemes for rapid, exo-enzymatic
      disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide. WATER (accepted for publication, May 2018).