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Centre for Commercial Law Studies

ICE IVORY to WHITE GOLD - Links between the illegal wildlife trade and the trade in geo-cultural artefacts

When: Thursday, June 23, 2022, 3:00 PM - 5:00 PM
Where: Zoom/Lecture Theatre, Centre For Commercial Law Studies, 67-69 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3JB

About the Speaker

Caroline Cox is a Senior Lecturer at the Portsmouth Law School (University of Portsmouth).

Caroline’s research focuses on the illegal wildlife trade (particularly the illegal ivory trade). Her academic background is socio-legal and so her research considers the legal, political and economic impacts of the illegal wildlife trade on endangered species and the wider human community. This has led to cross-disciplinary projects with colleagues in the Southern African states (most notably Botswana and South Africa) considering the impact of wildlife and human-wildlife conflict on both human and non-human species.

Caroline received her PhD from the University of Portsmouth. Her PhD thesis was entitled “White Gold: Studies in the law and regulation of the sale of ivory in the United Kingdom.”

About the Event

The United Kingdom, with the introduction of the Ivory Act 2018, is at the forefront of elephant protection and it is hoped that our Government’s commitments made in the 25 Year Environment Plan will see increased protection for other species at risk as a result of the illegal wildlife trade. However, there is a species which falls outside of the regulation of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) but which can be directly linked to the ivory trade – the mammoth. Extinction brought an end of the mammoth’s time of earth more than 10,000 years ago but as the world warms and the permafrost melts, mammoth tusks are being uncovered across the world, from Siberia to Alaska and from California to Devon. There are close similarities between the tusks of elephants and mammoths leading conservationists to fear that the increase in “ice ivory” heralds a new threat to elephants.


The Roundtable will be chaired by Professor Johanna Gibson, Herchel Smith Professor of Intellectual Property Law and Convenor of Animal Law (LLM) at CCLS.

Animal Law at CCLS

Professor Gibson introduced Animal Law on the Queen Mary School of Law LLM in 2018, making the Queen Mary School of Law one of the first institutions in the UK to offer Animal Law as part of a formal LLM programme. CCLS now offers two Animal Law modules – SOLM025 Animal Law, Welfare and Trade (focusing on agriculture, science, research and innovation, and conservation) and SOLM026 Animal Law, Media and Culture (focusing on animals in the creative industries).

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